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Næste første visning af Messerschmitt Me 262

Næste første visning af Messerschmitt Me 262



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Næste første visning af Messerschmitt Me 262

Et første næsebillede af Messerschmitt Me 262, lysning, der viser tre af de fire kanonstillinger.

Billedet er tilladt af Warbird Alley


Messerschmitt Me-262

Hvad ville have været resultatet af krigen i Europa, hvis potentialet i Messerschmitt's Project 1065 i 1940 var blevet værdsat af høj myndighed? Hvis et nedbrudsprogram var opstået for at sætte dette turbojet-drevne fly i drift på et meget tidligere tidspunkt, ville Luftwaffe have genvundet initiativet til de to første år af Anden Verdenskrig?

Desværre er svarene ikke klare, og der er ikke plads til at diskutere fordele og ulemper. Det må være tilstrækkeligt, at Me 262 (som P.1065 blev udpeget) var verdens første turbojet -drevne fly til at gå ind i driftstjenesten - i Juvincourt, Frankrig den 10. juli 1944. Da var fjendtlighederne i Europa imidlertid ophørt kun ti måneder væk: manglen på en reel plan for indsættelse af disse fly og utilstrækkelig taktik til at få fuldt udbytte af deres hastighedsfordel kunne ikke afhjælpes på så kort tid - især under de kaotiske forhold i Tyskland og med svindende forsyninger af brændstof.

Messerschmitts P.1065-design var opstået allerede i 1938, da Reichsluftfahrtministerium havde anmodet virksomheden om at designe en to-motoret jagerfly, der kunne udnytte de nye turbojetmotorer, der blev udviklet i Tyskland. Efter inspektion af mock-up'en blev tre prototyper bestilt den 1. juni 1940. Men fordi motorerne til at drive Me 262 ikke var udviklet tilstrækkeligt, fløj den første prototype i første omgang med stempelmotorer. Først den 18. juli 1942 blev den første flyvning med all-turbojet-effekt registreret. (Heinkel 280, som ikke kom i produktion, var fløjet før Me 262, den 2. april 1941, så det blev verdens første dobbeltmotorfly.)

Af konventionel konstruktion i helt metal med belastet hud, havde vingen moderat sweepback, langspændte ailerons, bagkantsklapper og fulde span automatiske spidser. Motorerne blev monteret under vingen for at udelukke en kompleks vingesparstruktur, og landingshjulet var af en tilbagetrækkelig halehjulstype. Den femte prototype introducerede en ikke-indtrækbar næsehjulsenhed, og den sjette var den første, der havde et landingsudstyr, der kan trækkes tilbage til en trehjulet cykel.

Første større version var Me 262A-1a Schwalbe (Swallow) interceptor, bevæbnet med fire 30 mm MK 108 kanoner monteret i næsen. Den blev drevet af to 8.825kN Junkers Jumo 109-004B-1 otte-trins aksial-flow turbo-jetstråler. En række varianter blev bygget med forskellig bevæbning. Den anden store version var Me 262A-2a Sturmvogel (Stormbird) bombefly. Dette blev produceret på insisteren fra Adolf Hitler - en beslutning, der forårsagede betydelige samlede produktionsforsinkelser. Det bar ud over standard MK 108 -oprustning en 1.000 kg, to 500 kg eller to 250 kg bomber. Som med Schwalbe var der en række varianter, hovedsageligt til bevæbnet eller ubevæbnet rekognoscering.

Mick, hvem der fortalte dig, at atombomben aldrig var beregnet til at blive brugt mod Tyskland, blev groft misinformeret. Einstein Szil rd -brevet, skrevet af Le Szil rd med hjælp fra andre ungarske fysikere Edward Teller og Eugene Wigner og underskrevet af Albert Einstein, blev sendt til USA’s præsident Franklin D. Roosevelt den 2. august 1939, (over 2 år før Japan angreb USA). Brevet advarede om, at Tyskland arbejdede på designet af en atomreaktor og også undersøgte muligheden for et våben ved hjælp af lignende teknologi. Roosevelt besluttede, at brevet krævede handling, og godkendte oprettelsen af ​​det "rådgivende udvalg for uran", ledet af Lyman Briggs. Da Amerika kom ind i krigen, kom udviklingen af ​​en atombombe for at imødegå den opfattede tyske indsats på dette område i højt gear. Da Tyskland overgav sig den 8. maj 1945, nærmede flere af forskerne, der arbejdede på projektet, Oppenheimer (hovedforsker) og spurgte, om projektet ville blive stoppet, nu hvor Tyskland, det tilsigtede mål, ikke længere var en trussel . De fik at vide, at projektet ville fortsætte til mulig brug mod Japan.
"Fallout" var ikke en faktor i beslutningen om at bruge et atomvåben i 1945 hovedsageligt fordi, vidunderligt som det lyder i dag, videnskabsfolkene, der arbejdede på projektet, ikke var klar over de langvarige virkninger af "Fallout". Grunden til, at der aldrig faldt nogen atombombe på det europæiske kontinent, var, at den første atombombe først var klar til test 16. juli 1945 over to måneder efter, at Tyskland gav op.
Efter krigen blev de amerikanske forskere, der undersøgte eftervirkningerne af bomben ved Hiroshima, overrasket og forfærdet over at erfare, at Nuclear "Fallout" var en af ​​hovedeffekterne af "A" -bomben, og ikke den mindre, de havde troet, at Det tog stadig "Operation Crossroads" ved Bikini Atoll i midten af ​​1946 at overbevise amerikanske militærplanlæggere om, at atom "Fallout" var et stort problem, da atombomber blev brugt.
At "Old Chestnut" om Amerika ikke behøvede at tabe "Bomben" på Japan, har gjort runder i de sidste 70 år. I det kejserlige kabinet, hvor Hirohito brød dødvandet og fortalte sine ministre at afslutte krigen, var det vigtigste diskussionsemne muligheden for total ødelæggelse af alle japanere ved destruktiv kraft i Amerikas nye "Super" -våben og ikke Ruslands indtræden i krigen mod dem. "Blame America first" -mængden har altid forsøgt at manipulere historien, så den passer til dens politiske dagsorden!

Jeg voksede op mellem Wright og Patterson -feltet. Jeg var vant til propeldrevne fly, men en dag hørte jeg en mærkelig støj, jeg aldrig havde hørt før. Jeg kiggede op på himlen, men kunne ikke finde eller se noget. dette blev ved med at ske i et par dage, så til min forbløffelse så jeg det tyske jetfly. Vi havde fanget en Messerschmitt Me 262 og testede den. Jeg var ikke vant til, at et fly var langt foran dens lyd.

Atombomben var altid beregnet til Japan, bombning af Tyskland med nuks ville have dækket Europa i en sky af strålingsfald, og de allierede vidste det, derfor faldt den aldrig på kontinentet, bombningen af ​​Japan med atomvåben var rent politisk, da skaden forårsagede til industrien var meget minimal, brugte de bomberne til at vise verden, hvem "angiveligt var overlegen". Japan overgav sig ikke fra atomtruslen, men ved truslen om sovjetisk invasion fra gengældelse fra besættelsen af ​​Rusland i den japenesiske begyndelse af 1900'erne. Som sædvanlig er historien blevet manipuleret til at passe til den politiske dagsorden

Alle "hvad nu hvis" savner pointen. Først og fremmest ville der ikke have været en tysk atombombe i 1946, at det tyske atombombe -projekt var mislykket (nogle hævder, at det blev saboteret af forskerne, der arbejdede på projektet). For det andet blev Manhattan -projektet ikke forfulgt til Nuke Japan, det var tiltænkt Tyskland. Hvis Tyskland havde haft Me262'er i tilstrækkeligt antal til at trække krigen i Europa ud i yderligere 4 måneder, ville det have været to tyske byer, der modtog "Fat Man" og "Little Boy" i begyndelsen af ​​august 1945, ikke to japanske byer. Slutresultatet ville have været det samme Tysklands samlede nederlag.

Den frie verden skylder meget, at skæbnen for et så genialt fly blev bestemt af sådanne Dumme mennesker.

"Jeg var en kadet, eller du kan kalde mig en flyvekadet eller en mellemskibsmand, hvis du vil, for flyvevåbnet. Jeg var en jagerpilot på det tidspunkt. Jeg fløj en Me-262. På det tidspunkt kunne jeg ikke lide tanken om denne ting kaldet en jet. Jeg troede, at det ikke var sikkert, og at jeg ville dræbe mig selv. Så jeg fløj ind i kamp, ​​og åh ja, jeg var hurtigere, end jeg troede var muligt at gå. Du skulle have set udseendet på de amerikanske ansigter, da jeg gik på det. Jeg dræbte næsten mig selv den dag, for ikke at være bagatel med ikke at bruge dem. Men overraskende niveau. Jeg ville bare dele min historie. Google Translate det. "

Ich war ein Fahnenjunker, eller Sie kénen mich einen Flug Cadet oder ein Fhnrich, wenn Sie wollen, for the Luftwaffe. Ich war ein Kampfpilot an der Zeit. Ich flog eine Me-262. Zu der Zeit wusste ich nicht, wie die Idee dieses Ding namens ein Jet. Ich dachte, dass es nicht sicher war, and dass ich im Begriff war, mich selbst get tet. Også flog ich in die Schlacht und oh yeah, ich war schneller als ich dachte, war m glich gehen. Sie sollten den Blick auf jene amerikanischen Gesichter sehen sollen, als ich ging sie auf. Ich habe mich fast umgebracht, dass Tag, so dass nicht zu spa en nicht mit ihnen. Aber erstaunlich Ebene. Ich wollte nur meine Geschichte zu teilen. Google Oversæt det.

Ja synligheden fra cockpittet var ikke den bedste.
Baldakinen var fin, men karosseriet var så bredt, og tvillingmotorerne på fejede vinger blokerede meget for det samlede udsyn.
Også den unikke form kunne let identificeres langt væk af en modstander. Selvfølgelig er det dyder, der langt opvejer dets fejl.
Sammenlignet med allierede samtidige som Bell P-59 og Gloster Meteor var Me 262 superlativ. De to andre jetfly havde ikke koteletterne til at blande det sammen med Schwalbe.

Messerscmitt 262 har dårligt udsyn.

Åh venligst Justin! Du er næsten lige så vildledt som Steinhoff!

Nu hvor kunne Tyskland tænkeligt få materialer nok til at producere så meget Me262s? Selvom vi accepterer det uhyggeligt lave antal 80 Me262 i et enkelt engagement, kunne det have stoppet bombeangreb i dagtimerne (hvilket fra JG7s erfaring med at affyre mellem 35-50 fly pr. Raid i februar 1945 bekræftede. Strategisk set udgør det stadig ingenting)

Fra juni 1943- oktober 1944 var Messerschmitt kun i stand til at producere ikke mere end 340 flyrammer, det var før tabene fra bombning, ulykker, transport tog sin vej.

Og selv ifølge Adolf Gallands (fyren har været ultra-begejstret for Me262 lige siden han prøvede det, men faktum var, at der stadig var masser af problemer med Jumo 004, og det var ikke i nærheden af ​​operationelt endnu) optimistisk "gæt", ville han har brug for omkring 500 af dem for at stoppe bombningen i dagtimerne, dette betyder naturligvis ikke, at der sandsynligvis ikke er nok J2 tilbage i riget til at støtte en sådan operation, og selvom der var mangel på erfarne piloter, som ville være påkrævet for at score et hit inden for 2 sekunder og bryde væk, ville alligevel have dømt planen.

Realistisk set var det faktum, at Me262 faktisk formåede at gå ind i driftsstatus ikke mindre end et mirakel, men at håbe, at det kunne have vendt strømmen. det var ud over at drømme, det var simpelthen et eventyr, der blev foreviget af mindre kræsne sind.

Horton 18 var den større version og var også snigende. Det var klart, så ville Tyskland have et atomvåben i 1946. Hvis krigen kunne have holdt ud til da ville verden være meget anderledes.

Tænk, hvis tyskerne havde indsat disse i stort antal uden at gå over test over test i årevis, indtil de endelig indså, at de tabte. Også de to motorer blev også brugt til at drive Horton 229. Hvis det ikke ville have taget så lang tid, kunne de have haft en endnu hurtigere jetfly, stealth og kanoner, det ville have skabt masseødelæggelse! Jeg mener, at Horton 18 faktisk havde afstanden til at nå USA og slippe en Nuke!

ÉN AF DENNE MIG 262 ER PÅ INDGANGEN TYNDALL AIR FORCE BASE BELIGGET LIGE ØST I PANAMA CITY, FLORIDA.

Det spekulerer meget godt i, hvad der ville være sket, hvis dette fly ikke var blevet forsinket, men hvad hvis Whittle heller ikke var blevet overset i årevis. Der kunne have været fly med Meteor / Vampire -ydeevne i 1938 og Canberra -bombefly i 1941.
På ingen måde ville Hitler have risikeret krig med en jet udstyret Royal Air Force (Whittle selv erklærede, at han følte, at han burde have gjort mere for at overtale regeringen til at vedtage turbojet tidligere og have forhindret eller i det mindste forsinket 2. verdenskrig. Ikke underligt, at fyr var et nervøs vrag).
Whittle beskyldte for det meste Freeman (mytens hovedperson) i det omfang, han kaldte ham en nazistisk agent.

Jeg har læst, at Adolf Galland lærte piloter at slå bremserne ved start. Han stod angiveligt på et sted på landingsbanen for at angive punktet for at bremse for at få halen op og give de vandrette stabilisatorer noget slipstream at arbejde med. Jeg har en meget kort video af en taildragger Me262 landing.

Hvad der ikke er angivet i opskrivningen, er hvordan det skete, at 262 gik fra en haletrækker (halehjul) til en næsehjulskonfiguration. Den første testflyvning kunne ikke få halen løs, så flyet ikke kunne starte. På grund af jetmotoren manglede de propwash, der hjalp med at løfte halen. Stort problem! Under et møde om, hvad der kunne gøres for at løse dette problem, foreslog en tekniker, at hvis de får flyet til at gå ned af landingsbanen og derefter på det passende tidspunkt rammer bremserne for at skabe et næse ned -øjeblik (halen op) og derefter tage afsted. Det fungerede på de første få testflyvninger, indtil de omkonfigurerede flyet med et næsehjul og fik tyngdepunktet frem af hovedgearet. Denne historie blev fortalt til mig af min chef, Richard Hadcock, der mødte en af ​​piloterne efter krigen på en konference. Det blev også personligt bekræftet for mig af Dr. Hans Von Ohein, opfinderen af ​​den aksiale flowkompressor, bedre kendt som jetmotoren. Han opfandt det som en gradstuderende og fortalte historien om, hvor svært det var at holde møllen tændt. Han besluttede, at han havde brug for et brændstof med det højeste forbrændingsområde og indså, at det var brint. Han demonstrerede med succes motoren ved hjælp af brint. Sir Ralph Whittle udviklede konceptet med radial flow kompressor, men på grund af det store frontareal var det ikke så velegnet til fly. Som det viser sig, blev Dr. Von Ohein og Sir Whittle gode venner efter krigen. Dr. Von Ohein, som jeg forstår, fik det ikke en krone i royalties for opfindelsen af ​​jetmotoren. Han arbejdede i mange år på Wright Patterson Air Force base i fremdriftsafdelingen. En meget anstændig og strålende mand, som jeg mødte flere gange og kunne lide meget.

Hvad der gjorde indtryk på mig dengang og stadig er de tyske ingeniørmæssige succeser i forbindelse med undersøgelsen af ​​ME 262, på grund af dengang krigsforhold og begrænsede servicefaciliteter, kunne ME 262's jetmotorer fjernes (i marken) og udskiftes på en times tid! FANTASTISKE .

Hvad der gjorde indtryk på mig dengang og stadig er de tyske ingeniørmæssige succeser i forbindelse med undersøgelsen af ​​ME 262, på grund af krigsforhold på det tidspunkt og begrænsede servicefaciliteter, kunne ME 262's jetmotorer fjernes (i marken) og udskiftes på en times tid! FANTASTISKE .

Interessemærke: De 262, jeg så udstillet på WPAFB -museet, havde den uhyrlige (105 mm ?!) Kanon skudt ud af næsen, forskudt fra midten. Nævnte kanon var til 'tankdestruktion', ala Amerikas A10 Vortesvin. Displayskiltet bemærkede, at Herman Goering, da han blev taget til fange, ville være sikker på, at hans jævnaldrende på den allierede side VED, at han ikke var så dum at sætte kanonen på flyet. At ordren om at sætte det der kom direkte fra galningen selv, Der Fuhrer AH selv. Virkede ret humoristisk.


Messerschmitt Me 262

Af Stephen Sherman, december 2008. Opdateret 2. maj 2012.

M ustang -pilot Bud Anderson havde den nye tyske jetjager i øjnene. Men da han lukkede ind, strømmede jetflyet bare op og forsvandt. Messerschmitt ME 262, verdens første jetfly, strøg væk fra ham med mere end 540 km / t, hundrede miles i timen hurtigere end P-51.

Historie

Fra 1930'erne forsøgte motordesignere i flere lande at udvikle et radikalt nyt alternativ til stempelmotoren. Tyskerne fokuserede på turbojetforskning og stjal en march mod de andre. I 1938 havde BMW og Junkers lovende motorprogrammer, mens Ernst Heinkel og Willi Messerschmitt designede fly til at transportere jetmotorer. Heinkel's He 2800 fløj først og syntes i mange henseender at have mere potentiale, men det lykkedes Messerschmitt (regimets foretrukne designer) at få sin Me 262 godkendt til produktion. He 280 blev skrinlagt.

Ikke desto mindre, Hitler og Reichsluftministerium (RLM), prioriterede ikke jetjageren. De følte sig noget sikre ved omfanget af tyskkontrolleret område, hvilket ville være svært for fjendtlige krigere at eskortere bombefly meget dybt. Hitler begunstigede også udviklingen af ​​et jetdrevet bombefly. (Selv om det er genstand for en vis debat om, hvor meget dette faktisk forsinkede jetfighter-programmet.) Yderligere var der store vanskeligheder med at skaffe de høje temperaturstållegeringer og andre unikke materialer, der var nødvendige for en jet. Det var først i december 1943, at den første bevæbnede Me 262 tog til himlen.

Mens den var meget hurtig, var Me 262 ikke uden ulemper og problemer. De nye Jumo 004-motorer var kortvarige og upålidelige, tilbøjelige til at flamme ud og tage ild. Me 262 var naturligvis et to-motoret fly (en meget god idé!), Og det kunne flyve godt nok med kun en fungerende motor. Landing var en anden sag, asymmetrisk tryk gjorde landinger meget vanskelige. Strålen kunne ikke accelerere meget hurtigt, hvilket krævede ekstra lange landingsbaner til start. Det kunne heller ikke bremse hurtigt, og 'go-arounds' på landinger var upraktisk. Det kunne ikke dreje godt og mistede meget fart på hårde sving, kritiske ulemper ved luftkamp. Håndteringen var meget udfordrende og kun for erfarne, dygtige piloter. Mens Me 262 kunne flyve som Helvede og var stærkt bevæbnet, var det det.

I juni 1944 dannede Luftwaffe den første prøveenhed, Erprobungskommando 262 (Ekdo 262), hovedsageligt med piloter fra Zerst & oumlrer enheder, under kommando af Werner Thierfelder. I de første par måneder kom Me 262-enheden i gang med at opsnappe rekognoseringsfly i stor højde. I september løsrev nogle jetfly og piloter sig fra Ekdo 262 for at danne en Einsatzkommando, ledet af det fornemme es, Walter Nowotny, som således blev kaldt "Kommando Nowotny." Baseret på Achmer og Hesepe krævede Me 262'erne betonbaner i stedet for Luftwaffes sædvanlige asfalt, og efterlod brændemærker ved start ved start. Kort tid fandt den allieredes rekognoscering ud af, at disse felter husede de nye jetfly, og også hurtigt lærte de 262's sårbarheder under start, begyndte de allierede krigere at patruljere områderne.

I oktober 1944 tog Kommando Nowotny endelig affære, og mens han nedskydte nogle allierede bombefly, led han selv store tab på grund af både ulykker og amerikanske fly. Den 8. november blev Nowotny selv skudt ned, muligvis af venlig flak. Den nye kommandør var Georg-Peter Eder, og da general-of-Fighters Adolph Galland så situationen (nye fly, underuddannede piloter og nærhed til fronten), beordrede han enheden (nu betegnet III/JG 7) trukket tilbage til Lechfeld .

I november godkendte Goering dannelsen af ​​en hel jetgruppe (Jagdgeschwader), JG 7, under kommando af Macky Steinhoff, der skulle overvåge udviklingen af ​​passende taktikker til Me 262. Selvom dens hastighed var enorm, krævede ny taktik brug af denne hastighed under hensyntagen til flyets begrænsninger. Noget overraskende syntes bombeflypiloter, der var fortrolige med instrumentflyvning, at være de mest lovende kandidater. Den nye doktrin om brug af jetflyene var beslægtet med en rutsjebane, Me 262 nærmede sig højt og bag USAAFs firemotorede bombefly, dukkede lidt ned under dem og steg derefter for at afbløde en vis hastighed, der tillod piloten at sigte og skyde , og derefter endelig dykke væk igen for at undslippe eskortekrigerne.

Men det var alt til ingen nytte. Mens Riget viste et imponerende antal Me 262'er (1.433 for at være præcis), pilotuddannelse, dårlig manøvredygtighed, sårbare baser, overvældende allieret luftoverlegenhed og endda nazistisk politik, alle sammensværgede for at forhindre verdens første jetjager i at gøre en rigtig forskel i krigen. Det bliver kedeligt at forsøge at genskabe alle de organisatoriske ændringer, der er forbundet med Me 262, men nogle af de store esser (Ekspert), der spillede en lederrolle med Me 262 enheder var: Nowotny, Steinhoff, Heinz "Pritzl" B & aumlr, Erich Hohagen, Theodor Weissenberger, Erich Rudorffer og Georg-Peter Eder.

Varianter

Mig 262A-1a Schwalbe

Den grundlæggende jagerudgave, med specifikationerne ovenfor. I normale kampflyoperationer ville det være tættere på den 'tomme' vægt.

Me 262A-2 Sturmvogel

Sturmvogel var jagerbomberversionen, der var udstyret til at bære to 500 kg bomber med denne last, der vejer op til 15.500 lbs., Dens maksimale hastighed var "kun" 470 MPH.


Indhold

Gennemførligheden af ​​jetfremdrivning var blevet demonstreret i Tyskland i begyndelsen af ​​1937 af Hans von Ohain, der arbejdede med Heinkel -virksomheden. De fleste af Reich Air Ministry (RLM) forblev uinteresserede, men Helmut Schelp og Hans Mauch så potentialet i konceptet og opfordrede Tysklands flyproducenter til at starte deres egne programmer for udvikling af jetmotorer. Virksomhederne forblev skeptiske og lidt nyudvikling blev gennemført.

I 1939 besøgte Schelp og Mauch virksomhederne for at kontrollere udviklingen. Otto Mader, leder af Junkers Motorenwerke (Jumo) division af det store Junkers luftfartsfirma, udtalte, at selvom konceptet var nyttigt, havde han ingen til at arbejde med det. Schelp svarede med at oplyse, at Dr. Anselm Franz, der var ansvarlig for Junkers 'turbo- og kompressorudvikling, ville være perfekt til jobbet. Franz startede sit udviklingsteam senere samme år, og projektet fik RLM -betegnelsen 109-004 (præfikset 109-, tildelt af RLM var fælles for alle reaktionsmotorprojekter i WW2 Tyskland, og blev også brugt til tyske WW2 raketmotordesign til bemandede fly).

Franz valgte et design, der på én gang var konservativt og revolutionerende. Hans design adskilte sig fra von Ohains ved, at han brugte en ny type kompressor, som tillod en kontinuerlig, lige luftstrøm gennem motoren (en aksial kompressor), for nylig udviklet af Aerodynamische Versuchsanstalt (AVA - Aerodynamic Research Institute) i Göttingen. Axial-flow kompressoren havde ikke kun fremragende ydeevne, cirka 78% effektiv under "virkelige verden" forhold, men den havde også et mindre tværsnit, vigtigt for højhastighedsfly. Dr. Bruno Bruckmans gamle assistent i jetmotorprogrammet, Dr. Österich, overtog for ham i Berlin og valgte det aksiale flowdesign, på grund af dets mindre diameter [1] var det 10 cm (3,9 in) mindre end de konkurrerende aksial-flow BMW 003. [2]

På den anden side sigtede han på at producere en motor, der var langt under dens teoretiske potentiale med henblik på at fremskynde udviklingen og forenkle produktionen. En stor beslutning var at vælge et simpelt forbrændingsområde ved hjælp af seks "flamme dåser", i stedet for den mere effektive enkelt ringformede dåse. Af samme årsager samarbejdede han stærkt om udviklingen af ​​motorens turbine med Allgemeine Elektrizitäts-Gesellschaft (General Electric Company, AEG) i Berlin, og i stedet for at bygge udviklingsmotorer, valgte man straks at begynde arbejdet med prototypen på en motor, der kunne sættes direkte i produktion. Franzs konservative tilgang kom til tvivl fra RLM, men blev bekræftet, da selv i betragtning af de udviklingsproblemer, den skulle stå over for, kom 004 i produktion og service langt foran BMW 003, dens mere teknologisk avancerede men lidt lavere fremdriftskonkurrent (7,83 kN /1.760 lbf).

På Kolbermoor, hvor Heinkel-Hirth-motorens placering fungerer, fandt Fedden-missionen, ledet af Sir Roy Fedden, at fremstilling af jetmotorer var enklere og krævede færre arbejdskraft og mindre sofistikeret værktøj end stempelmotorproduktion, det meste af fremstillingen af hule turbineblade og metalplader på stråler kunne udføres ved hjælp af værktøj, der bruges til fremstilling af karosseripaneler. [3] Fedden selv kritiserede fastgørelsen af ​​004's kompressorhus, der var i to halvdele, boltet til halvsektioner af statorsamlingerne. [4]

Teknisk beskrivelse og test Rediger

Den første prototype 004A, der blev konstrueret til at køre på diesel, blev først testet i oktober 1940, dog uden udstødningsdyse. Den blev testet i slutningen af ​​januar 1941 til et topstød på 430 kgf (4.200 N 950 lbf), og arbejdet fortsatte med at øge produktionen, idet RLM -kontrakten havde fastsat et minimum på 600 kgf (5.900 N 1.300 lbf) tryk. [5]

Vibrationsproblemer med kompressorstatorer, der oprindeligt blev cantilevered udefra, [6] forsinkede programmet på dette tidspunkt. Max Bentele, som rådgivende ingeniør i luftministeriet med en baggrund i turboladervibrationer, hjalp til med at løse problemet. [6] De originale aluminiumstatorer blev erstattet med stålstationer, i hvilke konfigurationen motoren udviklede 5,9 kN (1.300 lbf) i august og bestod et 10-timers udholdenhedsløb på 9,8 kN (2.200 lbf) i december. Den første flyvetest fandt sted den 15. marts 1942, da en 004A blev ført op af en Messerschmitt Bf 110 for at køre motoren op under flyvning. 004 brugte en otte-trins aksial-kompressor med seks [7] aksiale forbrændingskamre (fremstillet af stålplade) og en et-trins turbine med hule vinger. [4]

Den 18. juli fløj en af ​​prototypen Messerschmitt Me 262s for første gang under jetstrøm fra sine 004 -motorer, og 004 blev bestilt i produktion af RLM i omfang af 80 motorer.

De første 004A -motorer, der blev bygget til at drive Me 262 -prototyperne, var blevet bygget uden materialerestriktioner, og de brugte knappe råvarer som nikkel, kobolt og molybdæn i mængder, der var uacceptable i produktionen. Franz indså, at Jumo 004 skulle redesignes for at inkorporere et minimum af disse strategiske materialer, og dette blev opnået. Alle de varme metaldele, inklusive forbrændingskammeret, blev ændret til blødt stål beskyttet af en aluminiumsbelægning, og de hule turbineblade blev fremstillet af foldede og svejsede Cromadur -legeringer (12% chrom, 18% mangan og 70% jern) udviklet af Krupp, og afkølet af trykluft "blødt" fra kompressoren. Motorens levetid blev forkortet, men på plussiden blev det lettere at konstruere. [5] Produktionsmotorer havde et støbt magnesiumhus i to halvdele, den ene med halvsektioner af statoraggregater boltet til den. [4] De fire forreste statorer var konstrueret af stållegeringsblade svejset til fæstet, de bageste fem var presset stålplade bøjet over holderen og svejset på. [4] Stållegeringskompressorblade svømmede i huller i kompressorskiven og blev fastgjort med små skruer. [4] Selve kompressoren blev monteret på en stålaksel med tolv sætskruer. [4] Jumo prøvede en række kompressorblade, der begyndte med massivt stål, senere hule metalplader, svejset på konen, med deres rødder monteret over rhomboidale studs på turbinehjulet, hvortil de blev fastgjort og loddet. [4]

Et interessant træk ved 004 var startsystemet, designet af den tyske ingeniør Norbert Riedel, der bestod af en 10 hk (7,5 kW) 2-takts flad motor, der var skjult i indsugningen, [4] og i det væsentlige fungerede som et banebrydende eksempel på en APU til start af en jetmotor. Et hul i den ekstreme næse af indsugningsomskifterlegemet indeholdt et trækhåndtag til kablet, der "vendte" stempelmotoren, som igen snurrede turbinen op. To små benzin/olie-blandetanke blev monteret inden for den øvre omkreds af det ringformede indsugnings pladehus til brændstof til Riedels totakts mekaniske APU-enhed. Riedel-enheden blev også brugt-men blev installeret anderledes-til opstart af den konkurrerende BMW 003-motor og til Heinkels mere avancerede HeS 011 "mixed-flow" turbojet-design.

Den første produktionsmodel af 004B vejede 100 kg (220 lb) mindre end 004A, og havde i 1943 bestået adskillige 100-timers test, idet der blev opnået en tid mellem overhalinger på 50 timer. [8]

Senere i 1943 led 004B -versionen turbinebladfejl, som ikke blev forstået af Junkers -teamet. De fokuserede på områder som materialefejl, kornstørrelse og overfladeruhed. Til sidst i december blev bladvibrationsspecialisten Max Bentele endnu en gang bragt ind under et møde på RLM-hovedkvarteret. Han identificerede, at fejlene var forårsaget af, at en af ​​vingenes naturlige frekvenser var i motorens køreområde. Hans løsning var at øge frekvensen ved at øge bladets koniske og forkorte dem med 1 millimeter og reducere motorens driftshastighed [6] fra 9.000 til 8.700 o / min.

Det var først i begyndelsen af ​​1944, at fuld produktion endelig kunne begynde. Disse former for tekniske detaljerede udfordringer for 109-004-serien af ​​jetmotordesign udgjorde de tilbageslag, der var hovedfaktoren, der forsinkede Luftwaffes introduktion af Me 262 i eskadronservice.

I betragtning af de lavere kvalitetsstål, der blev brugt i 004B, havde disse motorer typisk kun en levetid på cirka 10–25 timer, måske to gange dette i hænderne på en dygtig pilot. [9] En anden mangel ved motoren, fælles for alle tidlige turbojets, var dens træg gasrespons. Værre var det ret let at injicere for meget brændstof i motoren ved at stryge for hurtigt op, så varme kunne opbygges, før køleluften kunne fjerne den. Dette førte til blødgøring af turbinebladene og var en væsentlig årsag til motorfejl. Ikke desto mindre gjorde det jetmagt til kampfly til virkelighed for første gang.


Messerschmitt AG Developments 1926 & ndash 41

EN efter at han kom til Bayerische Flugzeugwerke som ung ledelsesassistent i 1926, arbejdede Rakan Peter Kokothaki sig op gennem organisationen for til sidst at blive medlem for finans og marketing i Messerschmitt AG -bestyrelsen. I 1928 havde Willy Messerschmitt flyttet sin lille flybygningsvirksomhed fra Bamberg til Augsburg, integreret den i Bayerische Flugzeugwerke, men bevaret et mål for autonomi fra det større firma for sine designkontorer. Kokothaki blev således en interesseret observatør ved første hånd af Messerschmitt & rsquos ubarmhjertig lyst til fly, der designede fra 1928 og fremefter.

Et år før flytningen havde Messerschmitt udviklet M 20, et ti-personers erhvervsfly. Deutsche Lufthansa, dengang kontrolleret af Erhard Milch, senere for at blive Goering & rsquos Luftwaffe udenrigsminister, bestilte ti af maskinerne. Hans Hackmack, Erhard Milch & rsquos personlige ven og pilot blev udnævnt til testpilot for jomfruturen ved Augsburg den 26. februar 1928. Flyvningen tog et yderst tragisk forløb. Hubert Bauer, dernæst assistent ved værkerne, senere et langvarigt bestyrelsesmedlem i Messerschmitt AG, var vidne til ulykken og beskrev det således:

Flyet fløj i betydelig tid over flyvepladsen og det omkringliggende distrikt uden problemer. Efter cirka tyve minutter kom det tilbage over flyvepladsen og gennem kikkerten kunne man se noget lyst blafre i bagkanten af ​​en vinge. Kort tid så vi piloten komme ud af døren bag på flykroppen og hoppe. Hans faldskærmshimmel begyndte at blive indsat med det samme og viklede ind i flyet, så Hackmack blev hængende af faldskærmsstropperne. While he struggled desperately to unsnag it by tugging on the shrouds and kicking out, the aircraft continued serenely in level flight for quite some time before eventually the nose dipped and dived into the ground. Hackmack was killed instantaneously.

The investigation reported that some fabric had come loose at the trailing edge and this was the flapping seen by witnesses. It was assumed that the pilot had mistaken it for a fire or believed that the wing had fractured. Nobody was directly responsible for the accident. Hans Hackmack had probably lost his nerve, perhaps mindful of a test flight a few weeks previously in which he had narrowly escaped death. According to the report there should have been no problem landing the M 20 safely.

That Milch was deeply affected by the death of his friend was obvious. He blamed nobody but reacted very emotionally at Messerschmitt&rsquos disinterest in his personal loss. Messerschmitt did not even deign to attend the crash site. This coldness in Messerschmitt&rsquos personality was one of the causes for the split in the relationship between them.

Nevertheless Milch ordered two modified M 20a aircraft after they had been test-flown and pronounced problem-free. They proved successful on operations and when an M20b version became available Lufthansa also ordered two of these. Both crashed, one with only the pilot aboard, but the other involved passenger deaths. Initially, Messerschmitt was accused of having built M 20b in breach of safety regulations but after examining both wrecks, the German Test Institute for Aviation (Deutsche Versuchsanstalt für Luftfahrt) rejected the accusations. The actual cause was put down to sudden turbulence. Little was known of this at the time although aeronautical scientists in Germany were studying the phenomenon.

Willy Messerschmitt &ndash today an acknowledged pioneer of lightweight construction &ndash spared weight wherever possible provided it did not contravene aircraft construction regulations. If the regulations themselves were inadequate, that was not his fault. The two M 20b accidents were thereafter always known as the &lsquoTurbulence Cases&rsquo. How widely known Messerschmitt had become for his successful lightweight airframes is exemplified by the following anecdote: The Academic Pilot Group (Akademische Fliegergruppe) Berlin had ordered from Augsburg the sporty M23. The Group&rsquos leader, a Dr Leander, arrived at Augsburg to fly the aircraft to Berlin. Messerschmitt took this important client for a guided tour of the works and rounded off by asking if the customer had any request. &lsquoYes,&rsquo Leander said, &lsquoShow me how you scrape the wood off from beneath the varnish.&rsquo

The consequence of the three M 20 crashes was the cancellation of the Deutsche Lufthansa order. This meant administration for the Bayerische Flugzeugwerke. The negotiations were handled between Augsburg banker Friedrich Seider, an experienced liquidations administrator, and the BfW financial wizard Kokothaki, and lasted from 1931 until the Hitler government saved the firm with the first armaments contracts in 1933. Kokothaki despaired at the construction costs incurred from early on by Messerschmitt. Although the aircraft were outstanding, demand was slack. But Messerschmitt was not the only aircraft builder who paid scant heed to costs so long as others were going to be paying them.

During the Spanish Civil War another Messerschmitt design, the Bf 109 fighter, confirmed a superiority which had been self-evident for some time and in the summer of 1937 the Bf 109 left the aviation world in shocked silence. Dübendorf aerodrome near Zürich was the venue for an international flying tournament attended by entrants from France, Italy, Germany, Britain, Czechoslovakia and elsewhere. There were five competitions and the Bf 109 won all five. The machine flew and climbed faster than all its rivals. As a fighter it won the individual and team races. Never before had German aircraft even participated in an international competition. A few in the know might have been confident enough to place a bet on one or two victories. Europe was already bracing itself for war. To win all five races outright was almost a provocation. The Bf 108 Taifunfour-seater pleasure aircraft, and the Bf 109 fighter, his two excellent designs, elevated Willy Messerschmitt and his engineers, who numbered among the best in Germany, into the front rank of the world&rsquos aircraft builders.

In the spring of 1938, they now faced a daunting task. Men who would later become household names in Germany &ndash Lusser, Voigt, Degel, Hornung, Kaiser, Wackerle and Ludwig Bölkow, a young graduate engineer fresh from University who knew his subject, had talent and a store of ideas &ndash wrestled at desk and drawing board with the mathematics and technical design of an aircraft which was certain to lead them into virgin territory. The problem confronting the team was to come up with something special in aircraft design. A machine to succeed the Bf 109 no less, and that was by no means going to be easy. Within a few months they had conceived project P 1065 for a twin-engined jet fighter. The files entitled &lsquoMe 262 &ndash Pursuit Fighter&rsquo were presented to the Reich Air Ministry on 7 June 1938. Six months afterwards, in December 1938, engineers and officials from the Ministry made their first inspection of the full-size mock-up. The contract for the construction of three experimental aircraft followed a little later.

Elsewhere a series of world records was now set and broken. On 11 November 1937 &ndash shortly after Dübendorf &ndash Dr Hermann Wurster, chief test pilot of the Bayerische Flugzeugwerke, the trade name of the Messerschmitt organisation, hence &lsquoBf&rsquo, reached 611.004 kph in a souped-up Me 109E. The flight set a world record for land aircraft. On Whit Sunday 1938 the World War I fighter ace Ernst Udet flew at 634.73 kph over 100 kilometres at the controls of a Heinkel He 100, easily destroying the existing record of 554 kph held by the Italian Francesco Agello. On 30 March 1939 Hans Dieterle flying the Heinkel He 100 V8 set an absolute world speed record with 746.606 kph which Messerschmitt test pilot Fritz Wendel broke in turn on 26 April 1939 with 755.138 kph.

Wendel&rsquos machine was not a souped-up Bf 109, from which it differed outwardly, but an aircraft designed specifically to set the world record, the Me 209 V1. It was shorter, had finer wings the Bf 109 water-cooling system with its high frontal resistance had been replaced by a surface-mounted radiator and an evaporation device the oil cooler was a circular intake set in the airstream behind the propeller. Seven litres of cooling water were consumed per minute. Propulsion was supplied by an 1,800 hp DB601 V10 12-cylinder liquid-cooled piston engine specially engineered by Daimler &ndash Benz for record attempts and could manage 2,770 hp in a five-minute burst. The record was claimed at the Fédération Aéronautique Internationale (FAI) for an aircraft designated Me 109R to give the impression for propaganda purposes that a modified Me 109 had taken the world record. No effort was spared to protect the machine from the camera to maintain the deception.

The expression &lsquothe Me 109&rsquo sounds more formidable and slips off the tongue more smoothly than &lsquoBf 109&rsquo and the Propaganda Ministry was quick to seize upon it. The deception was never corrected with the FAI and Fritz Wendel&rsquos world record stood for thirty years. Even then only a few surpassed it. In 1939 Germany had four pilots who each held a world aviation speed record, and that in itself was a world record.

These achievements brought the piston engine to the zenith of its development. The four-stroke machine invented by Nikolaus August Otto could advance no further. And aircraft speeds could neither be increased by higher revs or a different design of spinner. To fly faster would only be possible powered by rockets or jet propulsion. In the endurance field, hardly 500 kph had been attained: even the Me 109 could not manage 400 kph in winning the competition over the set course at Dübendorf. The fastest propeller-driven aircraft of World War II were the twin-engined RAF Mosquito, and the German Dornier 335 &lsquoPfeil&rsquo with a propeller front and rear. These were capable of approaching 750kph in December 1944 and became the world&rsquos fastest series-produced aircraft. But that was the dead end.

The first manufacturer to fly a jet aircraft successfully was Ernst Heinkel AG of Warnemünde, whose experimental rocket-propelled He 176 and jet-propelled He 178 made their maiden flights piloted by Erich Warsitz in the summer of 1939. Interested onlookers on the ground were Hitler, Goering and Ernst Udet, Minister for Aircraft Production and Supply, but with the impending invasion of Poland only weeks away decisions had to be postponed until such time as Warsaw had requested an armistice. The German High Command was sure that Britain and France would look the other way once more. Later in the war both aircraft went on show in the Berlin Aviation Museum and were eventually destroyed there in an air raid.

The successor to the He 178 was the twin-engined He 280 with He S 8A turbines each developing 700 kg thrust. First tested in 1942, Udet recognised the possibilities of the machine at once but his pleas for its adoption by the Luftwaffe fell on deaf ears. Seven months later he was dead and Milch, who took over his office, lacked his predecessor&rsquos vision and felt that the development of the turbojet &lsquowith which the He 280 was first powered had enough bugs in it that the original flights of the jet fighter were made with the engines uncowled&rsquo and was thus not sufficiently advanced for him to advocate it. In the event, although work was continued on the prototype, the aircraft fell prey to the 1940 edict that any development which would not be usable within six months was to be abandoned. This might not have stopped Professor Messerschmitt but it was certainly the end of the He 280, the aircraft for which the time was ripe.

Shortly before the outbreak of war, aeronautical engineers in Britain, France, Italy and the United States were considering jet-engine designs, but in development already they lagged far behind Germany. The Kiel-based firm of Hellmuth Walter supplied the 600kg-thrust rocket motor for the Heinkel He 176 and was developing a liquid fuel for the Alexander Lippisch-designed Me 163 rocket fighter. The jet engine for the He 178 had been built by engineer Dr Hans Pabst von Ohain while early work on jet turbines had been in hand since 1935 at BMW and the Junkers Motorenwerke (Jumo). Information regarding progress being made on building the new turbines came from BMW and Jumo in a steady flow and Messerschmitt was confident that his Me 262 prototypes would be ready for testing as soon as the turbines arrived and were fitted.

Since BMW led Junkers in the development race, Messerschmitt consulted chiefly with the Bavarian firm and calculated from the available data that the fighter could top 800 kph in level flight. This speed was hitherto only dreamed of but still sufficiently short of the sound barrier that the expected problems at Mach 1 need not be addressed.

There was an initial difference of opinion about where the two engines should be sited. For aerodynamic reasons, Messerschmitt himself wanted the two cigar-shaped turbines built into the wings. After his engineers explained the difficulties this would cause, such as poor accessibility for maintenance and repair, the large personnel requirement for engine changes and finally a much greater risk of the whole aircraft exploding if hit by enemy fire, Messerschmitt was persuaded to sling a turbine below each wing. This would allow a conventional piston engine to be fitted in the nose of the experimental prototype as a stand-by in the event of turbine failure. The wisdom of this precaution was to prove itself, although not quite in the way that had been anticipated.

By the outbreak of war in September 1939, German military aviation had been developed only to the stage where the Luftwaffe could control the airspace over the Reich and the territories adjacent to it. Until then, it had seemed improbable that Germany would be faced by a dangerous enemy or superior combined enemy forces in the air. Hitler had concluded a non-aggression pact with the Soviet Union, the French air force was obsolete, the Polish air arm was small, obsolete and not independent of the Polish army, while Germany with 4,500 aircraft, some of them of the most modern design, led the field in Europe. The RAF at the time had a thousand fewer aircraft than the Luftwaffe.

The lightning victories over Poland and then France played their part in strengthening German confidence in the invincibility of the Wehrmacht and there were relatively few people, even among those in the know about certain adverse trends in Luftwaffe development, who took a less sanguine view. But even having disposed of the French, the German Luftwaffe was simply not strong enough for an air-war across the western European continent, particularly if pitted against the consequential and technically well-armed opponent which Great Britain was becoming. After an initial superiority the balance shifted to a parity between the fighter pilots of both sides during the Battle of Britain, but Germany lacked a modern heavy bomber able to penetrate far enough inland with a worthwhile payload even from airfields in northern France. And had such a bomber been available, no fighter existed with the range to provide aerial protection to, say, Liverpool or the Tyne and back. Early on, all hopes resided in the He 177 bomber. This machine was to prove itself a problem child of the first order. The trio of twin-engined bombers which formed the backbone of the German offensive against southern England were short-ranged and either troublesome mechanically, such as the Ju 88, or obsolete, as were the He 111 and Do 17: the Bf 110 &lsquodestroyer&rsquo was too slow and had little value as a bomber. The mediocrity of the Bf 110 had been recognised by the Reich Air Ministry in 1939. Udet himself had asked Messerschmitt if he would be able to supply the Luftwaffe with 2,000 improved Bf 110s by October 1942. Messerschmitt said yes and got the contract. This meant that he was now turning out Germany&rsquos principal fighter, and soon would be responsible for producing Germany&rsquos principal light bomber, and after that the world&rsquos first jet fighter.

By the beginning of 1941 &ndash still without the jet turbines &ndash the airframes of Me 262 prototypes V1, V2 and V3 were reported to the Ministry as ready for aerial testing. Since the manufacturers could not confirm a delivery date for the new turbines, Messerschmitt decided to fit a 750 hp Jumo 210G piston engine in the fuselage nose for the first test flights. Being portly, it was certainly a departure from the aerodynamic elegance of the shark-like hull, but it would serve its purpose and save time.

On the evening of 18 April 1941, Fritz Wendel, who had discharged himself from hospital against medical advice, climbed into the cockpit of Me 262 V1 and took off at 19:35 hrs. With its relatively weak engine, it was a close call to get the 2,660 kilos of machine into the air before arriving at the end of the 1,000-yard runway. In its first ascent and at altitude the new aircraft showed good flying qualities although the maximum 420 kph in level flight was only half its designed top speed. To see how the hull behaved at higher speeds, the aircraft had to be dived at a steep incline at full throttle repeatedly over the series of trials. On the first test, wing vibrations were observed at 540 kph. Twice previously flying other aircraft types Wendel had had to evacuate by parachute perilously close to the ground, but that was the risk a test pilot ran in the endeavour to find a new aircraft&rsquos defects if it was to be recommended for series production. As the angle of dive became ever steeper, the starting altitude became progressively higher to allow the pilot more time to bale out in case of disaster. Wendel established that the dangerous vibrations fell away at higher speeds. This brought him a certain relief, but he was sure that later when the jet powerplants were fitted and provided much higher speeds, more unpleasant surprises would be bound to lie in wait. The flight characteristics of the new hull were not merely good, however stability, the effectiveness of flaps, ailerons and rudder and performance at slow speed in particular were outstanding. Test flying the Me 262 airframe lasted the remainder of 1941.


July 18, 1942: World's First Operational Jet Fighter Takes Wing

Hvis du vil genoplade denne artikel, skal du besøge Min profil og derefter se gemte historier.

Hvis du vil genoplade denne artikel, skal du besøge Min profil og derefter se gemte historier.

The Messerschmitt Me 262 Schwalbe was the first German jet fighter used in World War II.
Photo: Bettmann / Corbis 1942: The third prototype of the Messerschmitt 262 becomes the first true operational jet plane when it takes to the skies over Bavaria at the height of World War II.

Engine problems, other teething difficulties and political bungling delayed its debut as a combat aircraft until 1944, but when it arrived, the twin-jet Me 262 showed that with an experienced pilot at the controls, it was more than a match for the best Allied fighters, including Britain's own jet, the Gloster Meteor.

In truth, the Me 262 should have been ready for front-line service much earlier. The original design, which, in the end, looked a lot like the finished product, existed as early as April 1939. But high costs and the belief of many high-ranking Luftwaffe officers that conventional aircraft could win the war prevented Germany from making the Me 262 a priority.

The first prototype flew in 1941, but the BMW-made turbojets weren't ready, so the first Me 262 went aloft equipped with 700-horsepower Jumo 210G piston engines.

Like the Type XXI U-boat, the Me 262 appeared too late in the war to help Germany stave off defeat. History will remember it as the world's first operational jet plane, but the Me 262's true legacy is the influence it had on the design of a new generation of warplanes.


Entering A New Age: Germany’s Stormbird – The Me 262

Det Messerschmitt Me 262 ‘Schwalbe’ (“Swallow”) is undoubtedly one of the most important examples of Germany’s technological advancement in both aerodynamics and jet engines during the Second World War. But the entry into operational service of the first jet fighter in history was delayed by a tumultuous and difficult development, mostly due to engine troubles and political decisions. Thinking that the war would be short, the Third Reich never granted it any priority. But once they were confronted with the possibility of a defeat, it was too late to produce it in sufficient numbers, train the pilots and have any significant effect on the outcome of the war.

This article is by Menetrey Yannfra Switzerland,-en guest authortil Defencyclopedia.


Me 262

DEVELOPMENT

Work on the Me 262 started before WW2 in 1938, but as an experimental aircraft. After the successful test flight of the world’s first jet powered aircraft, the Heinkel He 178, Germany adopted jet engines for an advanced fighter. Omdøbt ‘Projekt 1065’, the Me 262’s development progressed slowly due to difficulties encountered with the development of the BMW 003 jet engine which could only produce half of the expected output. While the Me 262 prototype was ready to fly, there were no power plants available to take it to the sky. This postponed the first flight of the Me 262 V1 prototype to the 18. of April 1941. The V1 was equipped with a Jumo 210G piston engine in the nose and two mock BMW 003 under the wings and only served to test the aerodynamics of the fighter.

Me 262 V1

29 July 1942 finally occurred the first flight with jet engines, more than a year after the completion of the airframe. The V3 prototype was powered by two BMW 003 producing 750kg (1,650lb) of thrust each and fitted with a classic tail wheel. This landing gear layout proved inadequate as the aircraft couldn’t leave the ground. While accelerating, brakes had to be applied to raise the tail of the prototype and allow it to take off. The V3 thus received a redesigned tricycle landing gear to be in a horizontal position during take off and test flights continued slowly.

Me 262 V3

The Germans produced two jet engines during the war: the BMW 003 and Jumo 004. Unlike the British, the Germans favoured axial-flow turbojet over centrifugal compressor turbojet. The axial-flow engine was far more powerful and had a smaller cross-section (important for high-speed aircraft) but was more fragile and complex to manufacture. The development of the BMW and Jumo engines was made in parallel, and both proved to be unreliable.

At first, the BMW 003 was the planned engine for the Me 262. Delays and problems in its development led Messerschmitt to choose the Jumo 004 instead. In the end, the BMW 003 only powered two V-prototypes and two production Me 262 A-1b. The Jumo 004, despite having its own development problems, entered production well ahead of its more technologically advanced competitor. Jumo’s jet engine had a smaller diameter but was heavier than the BMW 003.

Me 262 Jumo 004

The wing of the Me 262 had thus to be redesigned to maintain the centre of gravity. To resist high temperatures in the engine, scarcely available materials were used, which were unacceptable in production. To address this problem, a sheet of aluminium was applied over mild steel. The engine was easier to produce, but its lifespan was shortened, not exceeding 15 timer. The Jumo 004 could produce 900kg (1�lb) of thrust.

But in summer 1943, Hitler wondered if the Me 262 could be designed as a fighter-bomber. In fact, Hitler was giving more importance to a fleet of versatile aircraft capable of both intercepting enemy fighters and attack troops attempting an invasion of German-held territory before his Panzer divisions could repel it. Messerschmitt indicated it was impossible for the Me 262 to carry bombs in its current state and that it would require major modifications. Furious, Hitler ordered that every Me 262 had to be produced as a fighter-bomber.

Modifications were effectuated and two 250kg (500lb) bombs could be carried, becoming the Me 262A-1b/2a version. However, this improvised solution occasioned an excessive delay in the deployment of the Me 262. The jet fighter was thus never ready for the expected landings in Normandy, the very invasion Hitler wanted it to counter. The operational interest in the fighter-bomber version quickly fell and the Germans abandoned its production in favour of its initial interceptor version, the Me 262 A-1a.

ARMAMENTS AND DIFFERENT VARIANTS

Messerschmitt thought of its jet fighter as a bomber interceptor. To make short work of Allied heavy bombers, a powerful armament had to be mounted. The nose of the Me 262 had enough space to accommodate a wide variety of armament layout, depending on the version and the role it was intended to fulfil. I 1942, Rheinmetall-Borsig submitted its newly developed 30mm Mk 108 cannon, specially designed for use against heavy bombers. The cannon could fire the ‘Minengeschoss’ (“mine-shell”), a shell with a warhead filled with powerful RDX explosive, making it highly lethal against bombers. Three of these strongly brisant high-explosive ammunitions were enough to take a heavy bomber down.

The 30 mm Minengeschoss shell

The first armament trials with the Mk 108 were effectuated with the V8 prototype in March 1944. The Me 262 received not less than four Mk 108, each fed with 100 runder, giving it the heaviest armament of any WW2 fighter. 45kg of lethal projectiles could be fired in a 3 seconds burst. In comparison, the Hawker Tempest could “only” fire 18kg with its four Hispano 20 mm cannons. However, the Mk 108 had a low muzzle velocity and was prone to jamming.

To overcome the limitations of the usual quartet of Mk 108 mounted on the Me 262A-1a, another armament compartment was designed. Mounted on the Me 262A-1/U1, it featured two 20mm MG 151 cannons, two 30mm Mk 103 cannons and two Mk 108. The combination of the different cannons was problematic and only three examples of the Me 262A-1a/U1 were built. Another compartment was tried and fitted on the Me 262A-1/U5, featuring six Mk 108 cannons. But this solution was found too heavy and couldn’t store much ammunitions for the cannons. Only one example was built.

The different nose variants of the Me 262

Det Me 262A-2a was the definitive fighter-bomber version, capable of carrying two SC500 500kg (1,000lb) bomber. Kun two Mk 108 cannons were retained on this version. Messerschmitt also developed a reconnaissance version of the Me 262, starting with the Me 262A-1a/U3. This model could be distinguished by its bulge over the gun bay area which held two RB20/30 cameras. A single Mk 108 could be fitted but all twenty-six airframes were unarmed. Det Me 262A-5, the final reconnaissance variant, could carry two Mk 108 cannons, but only a few were produced before the end of the war.

The Me 262 recon variant

The armament was completed by 24 R4M rockets mounted on wooden racks under the wings. The R4M was a simple, small rocket-propelled missile that served almost exclusively on the Me 262. It had the advantage of being more practical than the large Werfer-Granate 21, had a higher velocity than 30mm shells but kept the same ballistic trajectory than the Mk 108 shells, making the aim easier. 12 were fitted under each wing and R4Ms were generally fired in a salvo of six rockets. Since their accuracy was limited, six rockets were enough to cover roughly the size of a heavy bomber, almost guaranteeing a hit.

Me 262 R4M

SPECIAL VARIANTS

Starting with one of the most atypical (and popular) versions of Messerschmitt’s jet fighter, the Me 262 A-1a/U4. Det U4 version was nicknamed “Pulkzerstörer” (“formation/pack destroyer”) and would have probably been the bomber-destroyer by excellence. Two airframes were taken off the production line, fitted with new nose sections and became the prototypes of the A-1a/U4. Flight tests were carried out in May and April 1945. The major difference between the “Pulkzerstörer” and an ordinary 262 is obviously the entire nose section that had been specially designed to accommodate the Mauser Mk 214A 50mm cannon.

Mauser Mk 214A 50mm cannon

Weighing 490 kilos (1,000lb) and with a rate of fire of 45 rounds/minute, it could carry 22 projectiles. Just like for the Mk 108, the Mk 214 could fire shells fitted with powerful RDX explosive. Only one of these large 50mm shells was enough to effectively destroy a bomber. The size of the gun meant that the nose wheel mechanism had to be reconstructed and the nose wheel swivelled 90 degrees to lay horizontally in the bay beneath the gun when fully retracted.

This layout had already been developed for the Messerschmitt Me 309 and adapted for the Me 262. The cannon was accessed by removing a large hatch along the upper nose and the otherwise so sleek outlines of the 262 were marred by a hump covering the foremost parts of the gun. The barrel itself protruded from the nose of the aircraft, making it look like a giant vicious insect.

Me 262 BK5

Even if the Mk 214 was the planned cannon for the Me 262, only one of the two airframes received it while the other was tested with the BK5, already in use with the Messerschmitt Me 410. Both cannons were highly powerful, allowing them to be accurately fired from long ranges, well outside the range of the defensive guns mounted on the bombers. With its speed advantage and tremendous power, the U4 would have surely been one of the worst nightmares of Allied bomber crews.

Check out some original gun camera footage from the Luftwaffe Me 262s

Another interesting variant is the two-seater one. The Messerschmitt Me 262 was a very delicate fighter to fly, requiring skills and experience. Early jet engines were less reactive than piston engines at low speed, making landings tricky for young pilots. A tandem-seat trainer version of the Me 262 was thus desirable and greatly eased the conversion of pilots on the jet fighter.

A second seat and dual controls were fitted, replacing one of the fuel tanks. Dette blev til Me 262B-1a version which was introduced in the summer of 1944. Only fifteen airframes were built. However, the Me 262B-1a led to the development of an impressive night fighter variant, the Me 262B-1a/U1. EN FuG-218 ‘Neptun’ long-wavelength radar was fitted along the ‘Naxos’ centimetric-radar-homing gear. The ‘Neptun’ was only a stop-gap before the improved Me 262B-2 fitted with the advanced FuG 240 ‘Berlin’ airborne interception radar was ready. The ‘Neptun’ was still capable of detecting a target between 100m og 5000m and was covering a 120° angle. However, its characteristic antennas were slowing the Me 262, but the latter was still capable of a max speed of 750km/h (470mph), still faster than the feared British De Havilland Mosquito which preyed on German night fighters.

The Me 262 B1 Night Fighter

To fit the radar in the nose, the two upper 30mm Mk 108 cannons were replaced by two 20mm MG 151 cannons but the two lower Mk 108 were retained. With the second seat, the Me 262 had lost a fuel tank, which greatly reduced its already short range. A good night fighter had to be capable of staying in the air and patrol for hours, so two 300L (80 US gallon) external fuel tanks were fitted under the forward fuselage, greatly extending the fighter’s range.

Trials started in October 1944. However, the Me 262B-1a/U1 didn’t see combat before April 1945. The NJG 11 ‘Kommando Welter’ was already flying the Me 262 A-1a fighter variant as an experimental jet night fighter unit and received ten Me 262 B-1a/U1 in April. Some accounts claim that these night fighters participated in the defence of Berlin and shot down some RAF De Havilland Mosquitos, but there is no confirmation of such claims.

AERODYNAMICS AND FURTHER DEVELOPMENT

Let’s get a bit technical here and speak about the aerodynamics of the aircraft. The Me 262 was already featuring some technological revolutions but considering how far German researchers in aerodynamics were at the time, the fighter wasn’t that advanced. Messerschmitt’s jet was first supposed to receive wings with a 35° sweep and two BMW 003 engines. As the Me 262 was finally powered by two Jumo 004 which were heavier, the wings had to be modified with an 18° sweep to keep the centre of gravity of the aircraft.

But what’s special with the angle of a swept wing? When an aircraft approaches supersonic speeds, the pressure on the wings increases brutally, increasing the drag as well. This phenomenon is called ‘compressibility’ and can be fatal for aircraft as they become nose-heavy and enter a vicious dive. When the compressibility limits of an aircraft are reached, surface controls become fixed. The pilot loses control of his aircraft which enter in a steeper dive, leading to the crash or disintegration of the plane in the air.

Swept wings have a crucial advantage: their compressibility ratio is much higher, allowing higher speeds. The sweeper the angle is, the higher the compressibility ratio is. This was discovered by the Germans in 1935, and further researches were immediately carried out. But an 18° sweep wasn’t enough for the Me 262. Its pilots were forbidden to enter 90° dives or reach speed in excess of 900km/h, otherwise, the fighter would be out of control. Messerschmitt was well aware of this and started to work on the HG versions (Hochgeschwindigkeit, or “high-speed”) in 1943.

A side view showing the aerodynamics of the Me 262

Det Me 262HG I had a wider chord of the inner wing section thanks to the insertion of a fillet increasing the angle of sweep between the engine nacelles and the fuselage. A new low-drag cockpit canopy and swept horizontal tail surfaces were designed. Flight tests started in January 1945 with the Me 262 V9 modified to the above standards. Tests were satisfactory but the new tail section gave rise to problems. The Me 262HG II received a new wing with the originally planned 35° sweep, improved engines nacelles, the low-drag canopy and the swept horizontal surfaces.

Messerschmitt also investigated a “V-tail” version. Extensive wind tunnels tests were effectuated and the Me 262HG II prototype was about to start flight trials but was damaged in a ground accident. The Me 262HG III incorporated a new wing with a 45° sweep, a centralised engine installation in the wing roots which would have greatly reduced drag, the low-drag canopy and the swept horizontal tail surfaces. The HG I and II were made to gain experience in high-speed flight while the HG III would have been the ultimate version of the Me 262. The top speed of the HG III was projected as Mach 0.96 (1,185km/h, 736mph). After extensive wind tunnels tests, construction of the HG III prototype started but wasn’t completed before the war’s end. And this is how ends the story of the first operational jet fighter’s development.

Om forfatteren

Yann Menetrey is a 21 years old university student living in Geneva, Switzerland. Fascinated by aviation since childhood, and later by military history, he’s running @the_ww2_gallery since three years, an Instagram account dedicated to the Second World War.

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Messerschmitt KR200, the super cool bubble car from the 50s

Noted for its odd appearance, the Messerschmitt did not fail to win the hearts of thousands of people across Europe.

Yes, we are talking about that weird, bubble-fashioned, three-wheels-only car that saw its heyday during the late 1950s and early 1960s.

Several models of this micro-car were released by its manufacturers, such as KR175 and KR200. Its German name is Kabinenroller and translates into “scooter with a cabin.”

Roughly 40,000 models were sold after it was introduced to the market in 1956, until 1964, when production ceased.

However, that was just enough time for the bubble car to establish itself as an entirely new niche in the car industry, which consequently also attracted others to produce their own variations of the model.

Painted blue, with neat leather seats, the interior of an elegant Messerschmitt three-wheeler, Photo by Norbert Aepli CC BY 2.5

Are they racing? Four Messerschmitts on the autobahn, Photo by Kenneth Allen CC BY-SA 2.0

Two red Kabinenrollers, one with a case fixed to the luggage rack, being admired by enthusiasts

FMR Messerschmitt KR 200 ‘Super’ this is reportedly the model that broke dozens of speed records back in its day as its manufacturers wanted to demonstrate the car’s durability and speed, Photo: Alf van Beem – Own work

White and blue model of the bubble car with a cute trailer, Photo by Brian Snelson CC BY 2.0

Only one passenger please, Photo by Brian Snelson CC BY 2.0

The control board of a KR200 model, Photo by Bruno Kussler Marques CC BY 2.0

Black and white photography from 1969, showing the bubble car in front of a seemingly abandoned house, Photo by FORTEPAN / Lechner Nonprofit Kft. Dokumentációs Központ CC BY-SA 3.0

You don’t often get to see one of these in the parking lot. Side view of a blue three-wheeler, Photo by Noebu CC BY 2.5

In the beginning, the Messerschmitt name didn’t have anything to do with cars. It was originally a company that produced aircraft, ever since World War One.

The Bf 1909 aircraft models and later the famed Me 262, the world’s first jet-powered operational airplane fighter model, were the product of the same manufacturer that later became famous for its micro-cars.

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After World War Two, the German company was banned from producing planes as part of the denazification process, therefore temporarily shifted to production of prefab houses.

The bubble-shaped car arrived only in the mid-1950s, when the company opted to reinvent its production line once again. The change was worth it, as there was suddenly this adorable, now all-about-vintage car you can take a look at in the photographs below.

A 1956 model out for a roadtrip. Messerschmitt produced these strange-looking automobiles from 1955 until 1964. Photo by FORTEPAN / Négyesi Pál CC BY-SA 3.0

Messerschmitt Kabinenroller from 1956, Photo by FORTEPAN / Négyesi Pál CC BY-SA 3.0

Inside the “cockpit” of a KR 200 model, Photo by Lothar Spurzem CC BY-SA 2.0 de

Messerschmitt KR 200 Cabrio-Limousine, painted yellow, Photo by Lothar Spurzem CC BY-SA 2.0 de

A Messerschmitt KR 200, produced in 1955. This one comes with a trailer too, Photo by Lothar Spurzem CC BY-SA 2.0 de

Exhibited here is a model KR175 Messerschmitt, Photo by Clément Bucco-Lechat, CC BY-SA 3.0

As good as new, a green-painted stunning-looking KR200 model, Photo by Jin Kemoole, CC BY 2.0

The Messerschmitt management did not come up with the idea of the three-wheeler by themselves, however. It was reportedly a man known as Fritz Fend, who had, during World War Two, served as a technical officer with the German Air Force.

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He approached the company with an invention he came up with in the years following the end of the war, the “Fend Filtzer,” a carriage that sported three wheels only.

The model came with an additional motor and the entire machine resembled an early version of an automated wheelchair, CarBuzz writes.

It will certainly make your day if you see a red Messerschmitt KR200

Messerschmitt KR200, opened to show off its beautifully simple interior, Photo by Brian Snelson, CC BY 2.0

Blue bubble-car gleaming in the sun, Photo by François de Dijon, CC BY-SA 3.0

Turkish writer Yılmaz Onay (left) and actor Erol Keskin in a Messerschmitt, 1968, Photo by Yılmaz Onay, CC BY-SA 3.0

The bubble car that came as an improvement of Fend’s original invention, and his collaboration with the Messerschmitt management, was destined to have an aircraft-like hint, one that could be easily spotted in the car design.

Just notice in the photos above how the car can be opened, with a canopy-like opening on the top instead of regular-looking doors, or the combination of tandem seats, also typical for combat aircraft of the day.

It’s no surprise really, as the manufacturers and Fend both had a long history in the aviation field. No regrets and no complaints either. Perhaps the bubble car is now part of history, but even the quickest glance will melt your heart.


Historie

The Messerschmitt Me 262 began development as early as 1939, even before the start of the war. However, low-priority status and issues with the extremely complicated jet engine manufacturing delayed the project severely. However, the aircraft finally took flight with jet engines in July 1942. However, engine problems still roamed over the development, with more engines breaking down than actually functioning. Furthermore, Hitler's insistence that the aircraft be used solely as a fast bomber instead of fighter only further delayed the 262's value even after it reached operational status. However, in July 1944, the aircraft scored its first victory against a Mosquito and then the 262 was finally being used against the ever increasing Allied air raids. It was a success, scoring numerous bomber and fighter kills in the raids.

However, a few victories could not stop the bombing completely and as such, many of Germany's jet aircraft had to be moved to special underground hangars. Β]  As for fighting in the air, 262 pilots often had to master their tactics quickly or die. The standard method was to dive on the bombers from behind and make a fast pass, though the speed at which the 262 moved meant that there was little to no time in which to aim and fire. Adding to the German pilot's troubles, as the war progressed, Mustang pilots began working in specialized teams to attack the jet aircraft and finally began to be effective against them. In total, some 1,430 examples of Messerschmitt Me 262 had been produced during the war.


Efterkrig

With the end of hostilities in May 1945, the Allied powers scrambled to claim the remaining Me 262s. Studying the revolutionary aircraft, elements were subsequently incorporated into future fighters such as the F-86 Sabre and MiG-15. In the years after the war, Me 262s were used in high-speed testing. Though German production of the Me 262 ended with the conclusion of the war, the Czechoslovak government continued building the aircraft as the Avia S-92 and CS-92. These remained in service until 1951.


Se videoen: AIRPOWER 2016 - Full Messerschmitt Me 262 Flying Display. (August 2022).