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Arkæologer Opdag 3.800-årig undersøisk grøntsagshave

Arkæologer Opdag 3.800-årig undersøisk grøntsagshave


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Stykke for stykke opdager arkæologer tegn på kreative ingeniørteknikker, der praktiseres af innovative gamle folk. Et sådant eksempel er at lave arkæologiske nyhedsoverskrifter-opdagelsen af ​​en 3800 år gammel vådområdehave i British Columbia, Canada. Dette interessante fund giver det første direkte arkæologiske bevis på ikke-indenlandsk planteforvaltning i mellem-til-sent Holocene-folk på nordvestkysten. Det har også givet lokale First Nations -mennesker en bittersød forbindelse til deres gamle forfædre.

Mennesker har brugt forskellige midler til at manipulere miljøet omkring dem. Selvom nogle bestemt er mere ødelæggende end andre, er ønsket om at ændre miljøet og forbedre overlevelse en ældgammel fortælling. Utallige innovative teknikker, der blev brugt til at hjælpe menneskeheden, mens de efterlod ringe negativ indvirkning på naturen, er gået tabt for det moderne samfund. Den nylige opdagelse i Pitt Polder vådområder i British Columbia giver dog nye oplysninger om denne slags aktiviteter.

Som Live Science rapporterer, opdagede arkæologer 3.767 hele og fragmenterede wapato-knolde i en menneskeskabt undervandshave. Ved at bruge tætpakket, ensartet sten til at skabe et fundament, kunne de mennesker, der boede i området, stoppe planterne fra at vokse for langt under jorden, hvilket gjorde høst lettere.

Denne stenbelægning opdaget på stedet ville have gjort høsten af ​​wapato -knolde meget lettere. ( Katzie Development Limited Partnership )

Stedets sumpede miljø viste sig også at være en stor hjælp til bevarelse. Nogle af de mere end 3000 år gamle knolde blev bevaret så godt, at de endda har deres stivelsesholdige indersider. Wapato -knoldene var mørkebrune til sorte i farven. Træredskaber blev også bevaret på det vandfyldte sted.

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Wapato knolde (Sagittaria latifolia) , også kendt som and-kartoffel, bredbladet pilspids eller indisk kartoffel, er planter, der vokser i lavvandede vådområder. Rapporten om opdagelsen i Science Advances forklarer, at disse planter “var en historisk værdsat og stærkt handlet fødevarekilde for oprindelige befolkninger langs floderne Fraser og Columbia, herunder Katzie. Wapato var typisk høstet fra oktober til februar og var en vigtig kilde til koststivelse gennem vintermånederne. ”

1918 tegning af et bredbladet pilespids, (Sagittaria latifolia) plante.

Udgravningerne gav også bevis for, at knoldene blev brugt som en økonomisk eller social ressource. Som forskerne skrev: "Tæt på 150 ildhærdede spidser, flere fundet indlejret spids nede i fortovet, viser hvordan wapato-knolde blev høstet i massevis."

Rapporten i Science Advances viser også, at de mennesker, der bor i bosættelsen nær vådområdehaven, omhyggeligt overvåget og konstrueret dens hydrologi for at skabe et miljø, hvor knoldene trivedes.

EN: Eksempel på konserverede trægravepinde. B: Gamle wapato-knolde (forbehold) udgravet fra det våde område i haven ved Pitt Polder vådområder. ( Hoffmann et al .)

Det er interessant at bemærke, at den menneskelige indvirkning på vådområderne syntes at hjælpe blomstermiljøet, mens stedet var beboet. Debbie Miller, der arbejder med det arkæologiske konsulentfirma ejet af Katzie Nation, fortalte News Network Archaeology, at "stedet hurtigt forsurede og tørrede ud", efter at indbyggerne forlod det for omkring 3.200 år siden. Sedimentær analyse bakkede op om denne tro.

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  • Genial brug af klæbrig rismørtel i det gamle Kina

Tanja Hoffmann fra Katzie Development Limited Partnership og Simon Fraser University i British Columbia ledede udgravningen og analysen af ​​wapato -knolde. Hun fik selskab af en besætning på 90 mennesker, hvoraf mange medlemmer af Katzie First Nation. Miller siger, at flere unge også var involveret, som brugte projektet "til bedre at få forbindelse til deres arv." Hun sagde:

Kulturelt talte vi om, hvad det betød at være på jorden med vores forfædre og røre ved deres liv. Vi har lige gået i forfædrenes hus. Det var for mange, mange af vores mennesker en absolut forbindelse til deres historie, noget de ikke kunne have fået på anden måde. ”

Projektet viste sig imidlertid bittersødt for Miller og mange andre - undersøiske have blev afdækket under vejarbejde, men blev brolagt over, da udgravningerne var færdige.

Webstedets placering. Den stiplede linje repræsenterer den omtrentlige historiske udstrækning af Pitt Polder vådområder. ( Hoffmann et al .)


Det gamle Egypten

Det gamle Egypten er berømt for sine pyramider, faraoer og mumier, men arkæologer lærer stadig om dette sofistikerede samfund. Det 5.000 år gamle kongerige efterlod en skriftlig optegnelse og utallige artefakter, der tillod arkæologer at lære om dens kultur, herunder dens udførlige ideer om efterlivet og guder og gudinder, samt dens skatter og handels- og landbrugspraksis. Her er de seneste nyheder om egyptisk arkæologi og hvad det kan fortælle os om de mennesker, der boede der.


10. Pont Du Gard, Remoulins, Sydfrankrig

Pont Du Gard er en 50 kilometer lang gammel romersk reservoirledningbro (vandhuse udnyttet af romerne) på kryds og tværs over Gardon -floden i Remoulins kommune i Sydfrankrig. Broen er en ægte magnum opus af gammelt romersk design. Det blev bygget i halvdelen af ​​det første århundrede e.Kr. for at transportere vand fra Uzes kommune til den romerske region Nimes. Det er et af de bevarede vartegn for gammel romersk teknik og et verdensarvsted i Frankrig.

Pont Du Gard er en tre etagers akveduktbroforbindelse, der står 50 meter høj og det længste niveau, der anslår 275 meter i længden. Antallet af buer og spændvidder ændres fra nedadgående niveau til øverste niveau. Broen blev konstrueret af 50400 tons kalksten uden brug af mørtel. Murstenene blev præcist skåret af bygherrerne med det mål, at de passede godt sammen.

Historikere opdagede desuden nummerering af broblokke, der bruges af bygherrer til platform. Broens vægge blev ligeledes optaget med beskeder og anvisninger fra bygherrerne. I dag er broen en stolthed i Frankrig og internationalt kendt for sin historiske betydning.


Arkæologer Opdag 3.800-årig undersøisk grøntsagshave-Historie

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75.000.000 f.Kr. er et fordybende galleri, der diskuterer, hvordan Arizona så ud for 75 millioner år siden. Dette var en tid med enorme vulkaner og dinosaurer. Besøgende vil lære om den geologi, der dannede Arizona til, hvad det er i dag, herunder en kobberrig stat. Følg os på de sociale medier for en udsigt bag kulisserne!

Ologies vil være vores første helt tosprogede (engelsk og spanske) udstilling, den ser på videnskaben om antropologi og paleontologi med fokus på vores forskningssamlinger og bag kulisserne Museumsarbejde.

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Jesus ’ Bibelske mirakel: ‘ Overbevisende beviser ’ om påske ‘opstandelse ’ fundet af videnskabsmand

Når du abonnerer, vil vi bruge de oplysninger, du giver til at sende dig disse nyhedsbreve. Nogle gange indeholder de anbefalinger til andre relaterede nyhedsbreve eller tjenester, vi tilbyder. Vores fortrolighedserklæring forklarer mere om, hvordan vi bruger dine data og dine rettigheder. Du kan afmelde dig. når som helst.

I denne weekend vil kristne rundt om i verden fejre påskeferien for at mindes Jesu opstandelse fra de døde. Det beskrives i Det Nye Testamente som at have fundet sted på den tredje dag efter hans begravelse, efter hans korsfæstelse af romerne i 30AD. For kristne er opstandelsen en af ​​de vigtigste begivenheder, da den garanterer, at de også får samme behandling under Gud & rsquos “s anden kommende ”.

I årenes løb har mange stillet spørgsmålstegn ved, hvordan et sådant mirakel muligvis kunne være sket, men lektor ved Washington University i St Louis, S. Joshua Swamidass, udtalte, at der er & ldquocompellerende beviser & rdquo.

Han skrev til The Veritas Forum og udtalte: & ldquoJeg er en videnskabsmand. Alligevel fejrer jeg i påsken, at Jesus opstod fra de døde for omkring 2000 år siden.

Denne begivenhed i Palæstina i det første århundrede er hjørnestenen i alt. På samme måde som tillidslignende tro på videnskab er forbundet med beviser, er den tro, jeg har på opstandelsen, også.

Uden den fysiske opstandelse er to tusind års historie tilbage og tigger om forklaring, ligesom en film mangler en nøglescene.

Ingen anden begivenhed i den registrerede historie har nået så langt på tværs af nationale, etniske, religiøse, sproglige, kulturelle, politiske og geografiske grænser.

& ldquoBudskabet spredte sig med urimelig succes over hele verden. I løbet af bare de første århundreder spredte den sig uden politisk eller militær magt, og den sejrede mod den hensynsløse indsats fra dedikeret, organiseret og voldelig opposition. & Rdquo

Prof Swamidass brugte Bibelen til at understøtte hans opfattelse.

Han tilføjede: & ldquoHvordan opnåede en lille gruppe jøder uden magt i et besat og ubetydeligt område i det antikke Rom denne uovertrufne handling?

& ldquoMed datoer fastlagt ved radiometrisk analyse forudsiger profetier fra århundreder før Jesus & rsquo fødsel hans liv, død og opstandelse.

& ldquoDisse profetier indeholder specifikke detaljer, som Jesus og hans tilhængere ikke kunne kontrollere.

& ldquoFor eksempel, før romerne opfandt korsfæstelse, beskrev Salme 22:16 hullet i Jesus & rsquo hænder og fødder.

& ldquoIsajas 53 er også en særlig vigtig profeti, der beskriver historien om Jesus og betydningen af ​​opstandelsen. ”

Videnskabsmanden bemærker også, at & ldquoJesus var en rigtig person i historien, der døde & rdquo som bevis på, at han ikke bare forfalskede hans død.

Han tilføjede: & ldquo Flere håndskrifter fra flere kilder, herunder jødiske historikere, beskriver en mand ved navn Jesus, der levede og blev henrettet.

& ldquoSpecifikke detaljer rapporteret om hans henrettelse bekræfter & lsquoblood og vand & rsquo spildt fra et spydsår i hans side.

& ldquoHan døde virkelig og var ikke bare bevidstløs.

& ldquoDe tidlige beretninger om opstandelsen og profetier, der forudsagde, blev overført pålideligt gennem historien.

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& ldquoMere end 66.000 tidlige manuskripter kendes, størrelsesordener mere end andre gamle tekster. & rdquo

Prof Swamidass sagde, at disse var blevet & ldquocarbon-dateret til før Jesus & rsquo-tid, og#8221 fik ham til at tro, at en & ldquopattern af konsistens & rdquo viser, at opstandelsen var virkelig.

Han konkluderede i 2017: & ldquoDen endelige dom for mig er, at opstandelsen giver mening gennem historiens linse.

Beviserne er overbevisende, men ikke endelige.

& ldquoTro i Jesus er rimelig og er bestemt ikke uden beviser. & rdquo

På trods af Prof Swamidass & rsquo -påstande er der flere andre teorier om, hvad der skete med Jesus, efter at han blev korsfæstet langfredag.

Disse inkluderer, at hans disciple nægtede at acceptere hans død, at han kun var bevidstløs fra korsfæstelsen, eller at hans tilhængere gik til den forkerte grav.

En BBC -undersøgelse i 2017 viste, at en fjerdedel af kristne i Storbritannien ikke troede på Jesu opstandelse.

Efter at have reageret på resultaterne sagde pastor Dr. Lorraine Cavanagh: & ldquoJeg tror, ​​[folk, der besvarer undersøgelsen], bliver bedt om at tro på den måde, de måske var blevet bedt om at tro, da de var på søndagsskolen.

Du taler om voksne her. Og en voksen tro kræver, at den konstant stilles spørgsmålstegn ved, konstant genfortolkes, hvilket i øvrigt i høj grad er, hvad Moderne Kirke egentlig handler om.

Videnskaben, men også den intellektuelle og filosofiske tanke er gået fremad. Det har en trickle-down effekt på stort set alle menneskers liv.

Så for at bede en voksen om at tro på opstandelsen, som de gjorde, da de var på søndagsskolen, ville simpelthen ikke gøre det, og det er sandt for mange af de centrale elementer i den kristne tro. ”


Ruinerne af en sofistikeret bosættelse i bronzealderen, der trivedes århundreder, før de blev udryddet af et større vulkanudbrud, er gemt væk fra den sydlige spids af Santorini.

Resterne af den minoiske by Akrotiri er bemærkelsesværdigt velbevarede, ligesom de romerske ruiner af Pompei. I midten af ​​det andet årtusinde f.Kr. brød bosættelsen ud, da Thera sad på en vulkan, og dens folk flygtede.

Det vulkanske stof omsluttede hele øen Santorini og selve byen og bevarede bygningerne og deres indhold, og besøgende kan stadig identificere huse og krukker.

Det arkæologiske sted Akrotiri.

Bosættelsen Akrotiri er et sådant sted. I modsætning til Pompeji er der imidlertid ingen litterære beviser for ødelæggelsen af ​​Akrotiri til rådighed for os. Faktisk blev byen kun opdaget ved en arkæologisk udgravning udført i 1967.

Akrotiri var en bosættelse i bronzealderen beliggende på den sydvestlige del af øen Santorini (Thera) i de græske Kykladerne. Denne bosættelse menes at være forbundet med den minoiske civilisation, der ligger på den nærliggende ø Kreta, på grund af opdagelsen af ​​inskriptionerne i Linear A -script samt ligheder i artefakter og freskomalerier.

Det tidligste bevis for menneskelig beboelse af Akrotiri kan spores tilbage allerede i det 5. årtusinde f.Kr. da det var en lille fiskeri- og landbrugsby. Ved udgangen af ​​det 3. årtusinde udviklede og udvidede dette samfund sig betydeligt.

En faktor for Akrotiris vækst kan være de handelsforbindelser, den etablerede med andre kulturer i Det Ægæiske Hav, som det fremgår af fragmenter af fremmed keramik på stedet. Akrotiris strategiske position mellem Cypern og Minoansk Kreta betød også, at det var beliggende på kobberhandelsruten, hvilket gjorde det muligt at blive et vigtigt center for forarbejdning af kobber, som bevist ved opdagelsen af ​​forme og digler der.

Bemærkelsesværdigt bevarede artefakter afsløres fra ruinerne af det gamle Akrotiri, Grækenland.

Akrotiris velstand fortsatte i cirka 500 år endnu. Brolagte gader, et omfattende dræningssystem, produktion af keramik af høj kvalitet og yderligere håndværksspecialisering peger alle på det sofistikerede niveau, der blev opnået ved forliget. Alt dette ophørte imidlertid i midten af ​​det andet århundrede f.Kr. med vulkanudbruddet i Thera. Selvom det kraftige udbrud ødelagde Akrotiri, formåede det også at bevare byen, meget ligesom Vesuvius gjorde til Pompeji.

Den vulkanske aske har bevaret meget af Akrotiris kalkmalerier, som findes i de indvendige vægge i næsten alle de huse, der er udgravet i Akrotiri. Dette kan være en indikation på, at det ikke kun var eliterne, der havde disse kunstværker.

Freskerne indeholder en lang række emner, herunder religiøse optog, blomster, hverdagslivet i Akrotiri og eksotiske dyr. Derudover bevarede det vulkanske støv også negativer af opløste trægenstande, såsom at tilbyde borde, senge og stole.

Dette tillod arkæologer at producere gipsafstøbninger af disse genstande ved at hælde flydende gips fra Paris i hulerne, der blev efterladt af objekterne. En markant forskel mellem Akrotiri og Pompeji er, at der ikke var nogen uinteresserede kroppe fra i førstnævnte. Med andre ord var indbyggerne i Akrotiri måske mere heldige end dem i Pompeji og blev evakueret, før det vulkanske støv nåede stedet.

Gipsafstøbninger af ligene af en gruppe menneskelige ofre for Vesuvets udbrud i 79 e.Kr., fundet i den såkaldte "flygtningehaven" i Pompeji. Der findes ikke sådanne rester ved Akrotiri, hvilket indikerer, at folket havde tid til at evakuere. 'Forårsblomster og svaler' detaljeret i en delikat Akrotiri -fresco

I 2016 gav den russiske cybersikkerhedsekspert Eugene Kaspersky arkæologer, der er interesseret i at udgrave Akrotiri, et enormt økonomisk løft ved at finansiere tre store projekter på det gamle sted. Sådan forklarede han sin årsag til økonomisk støtte:

”Det, jeg finder magisk ved Akrotiri og den årtier lange arkæologiske forskning, er følelsen af ​​en uforudsigelig fortid. Det faktum, at vi efter et vulkanudbrud for 3.500 år siden forsøger vi moderne mennesker at forstå, hvordan disse mennesker levede dengang. Og jeg tror, ​​at vi har masser at opdage. Tror du, at 3.500 år fra nu vil nogen være interesseret i at finde ud af, hvordan vi levede? ”

Udbruddet i Thera havde også indflydelse på andre civilisationer. Den nærliggende minoiske civilisation stod for eksempel over for en krise på grund af vulkanudbruddet. Dette kan imidlertid diskuteres, da nogle har spekuleret i, at krisen var forårsaget af naturkatastrofer, der opstod før udbruddet i Thera.

De kortsigtede klimaændringer forårsaget af vulkanudbrud menes også at have forstyrret den gamle egyptiske civilisation. Manglen på egyptiske optegnelser vedrørende udbruddet kan tilskrives den generelle uorden i Egypten i den anden mellemperiode.

Ikke desto mindre taler de tilgængelige optegnelser om kraftige regnbyger, der forekommer i landet, hvilket er et usædvanligt fænomen. Disse storme kan også tolkes metaforisk som repræsentanter for de kaoselementer, der skulle dæmpes af Farao.

Nogle forskere har endda hævdet, at virkningerne af vulkanudbruddet føltes så langt væk som Kina. Dette er baseret på optegnelser, der beskriver Xia -dynastiets sammenbrud i slutningen af ​​1600 -tallet f.Kr., og de ledsagende meteorologiske fænomener. Endelig kan den græske myte om Titanomachy i Hesiodos Theogony have været inspireret af dette vulkanudbrud, mens det også er blevet spekuleret i, at Akrotiri var grundlaget for Platons myte om Atlantis.

Således viser Akrotiri og udbruddet i Thera at vise, at selv i oldtiden kan en katastrofe i en del af verden få konsekvenser på global skala, noget vi er mere vant til i nutidens bedre forbundne verden.


Forskere rapporterer opdagelse af gamle kumara -gruber

En udsigt fra klitkammen ved Pūrākaunui med udsigt mod Araiteurus kystlinje. Kredit: University of Otago

Opdagelsen af ​​gamle kumara -gruber lige nord for Dunedin, der dateres tilbage til 1400 -tallet, har belyst, hvordan videnskabeligt bevis kan supplere mātauraka Māori omkring, hvordan og hvor taonga blev opbevaret for flere hundrede år siden.

En ny undersøgelse offentliggjort i videnskabstidsskriftet PLOS ONE rapporterer, at tidlige polynesiere engang lagrede kūmara - amerikansk sød kartoffel - i gruber gravet ned i klitterne ved Pūrākaunui, østlige Otago, mindre end 30 km nord for Dunedin. Gruberne blev først opdaget i 2001 og findes mere end 200 km syd for den i øjeblikket accepterede grænse for Māori kūmara i køligere klima.

Disse Pūrākaunui-funktioner har den nye form for semi-underjordiske, rektangulære gruber, der bruges til kølig sæsonopbevaring af levende kūmararødder i bulk, kendt som rua kūmara. Forskning i deres alder, indhold og kontekst er blevet ledet af lektor Ian Barber fra University of Otago's Archaeology Program med støtte fra universitetsstipendier og en Marsden-pris, og input fra radiokarbonekspert og medforfatter professor Tom Higham fra Oxford University .

Undersøgelsen blev udført med godkendelse og engagement gennem successive hui af Pūrākaunui Block -ejere og Kāti Huirapa Rūnaka ki Puketeraki som manawhenua.

I denne historiske undersøgelse har statistisk modellering dateret Pūrākaunui -gruberne med radiocarbon til et meget snævert område på 1430–1460 CE med 95 procent sandsynlighed, hvilket gør det til en af ​​de mest præcise kulstofdateringer, der har fundet sted i New Zealand takket være avanceret teknologi. Forskere mener, at rua kūmara blev opbevaret der på grund af opdagelsen af ​​mikroskopiske stivelsesgranuler med særprægede kūmara -egenskaber fra sikre aflejringer ved bunden af ​​gruberne.

Kūmara -gruberne med kasseret ben, skaldyr og trækul. Kredit: University of Otago

Fundet, Polynesien 's sydligste ældgamle kumara-opdagelse tilføjer utrolig vægt til lokal maori-mundtlig historie og tradition, der er blevet betragtet som gådefuld, hvis den ikke blev overset af arkæologer. En række af disse traditioner refererer til tab eller fiasko i det sydlige kūmara, men nogle referencer til kūmara -minder, atua (guder), butikker og dyrkninger, især fra North Otago Huriawa Peninsula forager og mindre end 30 km nord for Pūrākaunui. Gamle rua kūmara opdaget langs samme kystlinje repræsenterer en spændende forbindelse mellem disse traditioner og arkæologi.

Formand for Pūrākaunui Block Incorporation, Nicola Taylor, siger, at der er betydelig spænding omkring den betydelige forskning.

"Dette bekræfter for os på Pūrākaunui betydningen af ​​vores meget lange historie og forbindelse til landet," siger hun.

"Disse fund forstærker vores meget lange tilknytning til landet og bidrager til vores egen samling af historier designet til at fange historien for fremtidige generationer."

  • Et nærbillede fra en sektion af hovedgraven. De sammenføjede, lukkede pipiskaller i midten (til højre for 550 mm båndforøgelse) var radiocarbon dateret til perioden 1430-1460 CE. Kredit: University of Otago
  • Teamet arbejdede hårdt under udgravningen i 2001. Kredit: University of Otago

Disse følelser blev gentaget af Kāti Huirapa Rūnaka ki Puketeraki -manager Suzanne Ellison.

"Ians forskning har været virkelig interessant for Runaka at følge, og med bekræftelsen via kulldatering af kumara -gruben ved Pūrākaunui er den meget bekræftende om traditioner og mātauraka i forbindelse med Huriawa -halvøen," siger Ellison.

Lektor Barber siger, at undersøgelsen fremhæver den vigtige forbindelse mellem te ao Māori og traditionel arkæologisk praksis.

"Vi håber at have modelleret respekt lige så meget som videnskab i engagementet i maori -viden og arkæologi," siger han.

Lektor Barber siger, at der stadig er nogle spørgsmål om, hvorvidt de lagrede kūmararødder blev importeret fra varmere nordlige lokaliteter eller høstet lokalt i mikroklimaproduktion.

"Imidlertid kan en mørk, sandet arkæologisk jord fundet ved Pūrākaunui have været brugt til gammel dyrkning, selvom vi ikke kan bekræfte det på dette stadie af vores forskning."

I begge tilfælde repræsenterer denne opdagelse den tidligste sikkert daterede rua kūmara i Aotearoa. Det forbinder et lille antal eksempler på amerikansk kūmara i Polynesien dateret sikkert før opdagelsesrejsende Christopher Columbus 'navigation. Han siger, at den stramme kronologi også identificerer og placerer rua kūmara -opbevaring på omkring tidspunktet for moa -udryddelse, måske som en begrænsning for tabet af denne værdifulde fødekilde.


Historiebloggen

/> Arkæologer har opdaget en mængde bronzealdervåben af ​​international betydning i Carnoustie, Angus, det østlige Skotland. Ejendommen på Newton Farm blev købt af Angus Council sidste år med den betingelse, at den skulle være dedikeret til samfundsbrug. Fordi en tidligere udgravning i området i 2004 havde fundet tegn på omfattende forhistoriske og middelalderlige rester, måtte rådet også sikre, at stedet blev udgravet for at gendanne eventuelle arkæologiske rester inden byggeriet. GUARD Arkæologi blev kontraheret til at udgrave stedet.

I en lav grube fandt holdet en spydspids af bronze ved siden af ​​et bronzesværd, en nål og skedebeslag. Bronzespydspidsen er dekoreret med guldornament og er en utrolig sjælden genstand. Kun en håndfuld bronzealderspyd af denne type er fundet i Storbritannien og Irland. En af dem blev opdaget i en våbenopbevaring i 1963 på en gård kun kilometer væk fra Carnoustie, så det betyder, at af de få guldpyntede bronzespydspidser blev to af dem fundet i Angus. Dette tyder på, at området havde en betydelig velhavende krigerklasse omkring 1000 f.Kr.

Da bronzevåbenene er omkring 3.000 år gamle, er metalværket meget skrøbeligt. For at sikre, at disse sarte artefakter kunne udgraves med al nødvendig forsigtighed i et beskyttet miljø, blev jorden omkring gruben skåret ud, og hele blokken på 175 pund blev fjernet til GUARD Archaeology Finds Lab. Der analyserede konservatorer blokken for at udvikle en udgravningsplan, der sikkert ville bevare fundene.

Disse få sekunder med video formidler, hvor omhyggelig udgravningsprocessen var:

Enbloc -udgravningen viste sig endnu klogere, da organiske rester blev fundet i hamsten. Læder- og træskeden, mens den er brudt op i flere fragmenter, er den bedst bevarede bronzealderskede, der nogensinde er fundet i Storbritannien. Der blev fundet tekstilfragmenter omkring stiften og skindpels omkring spydspidsen. Denne slags materialer overlever næsten aldrig uden for vandtætte eller tørre miljøer.

/> En anden stor arkæologisk velsignelse for denne hamstring er, at den blev opdaget inden for rammerne af en sen bronzealder bosættelse. Det er ikke isoleret på kanten af ​​en pløjet mark, hvor alt, hvad vi kan finde om hamstringens historie, er i selve hamstringen. Det er en del af en meget bredere kontekst. Holdet fandt frem til resterne af omkring 12 rundhuse, sandsynligvis fra bronzealderen og andre store gruber, der indeholdt hvad der ser ud til at være affald (brudt keramik, litik). Omkring 650 artefakter blev opdaget fra bronzealder -bosættelsen. De fleste af fundene giver et datointerval på mellem 2200 og 800 f.Kr. til bronzealderens besættelse af stedet.

Der boede dog mennesker længe før bronzealderen. Arkæologer fandt resterne af to retlinede strukturer, der stammer fra den yngre stenalder. Den ældste stammer fra omkring 4000 f.Kr., og den er også et vidnesbyrd om områdets forhistoriske fremtrædende plads. Det er den største neolitiske hal, der nogensinde er fundet i Skotland. Der er ingen klare beviser for kontinuerlig besættelse, så stedet kunne have været beboet fra stenalderen til slutningen af ​​bronzealderen, eller der kunne være blevet bygget successive bosættelser på stedet med århundreder mellem dem.

Webstedet er planlagt til at blive omdannet til to græsfodboldbaner i henhold til kravet til brug i lokalsamfundet, og byggeriet begynder i slutningen af ​​måneden. Udgravningen af ​​det større sted vil fortsætte.

Neolitikum “enigma ” er opbrugt og udstillet

Tirsdag den 14. februar 2017

Det Nationale Arkæologiske Museum i Athen, Grækenland, har taget en af ​​deres mest nysgerrige artefakter ud af opbevaringen og udstillet den. Det er en neolitisk statuette skåret ud af granit for omkring 7.000 år siden. Den er 36 centimeter høj og har en spids, næblignende næse, en afrundet torso med en fremtrædende mave og tykke, uregelmæssigt cylindriske ben. Der er ingen arme, ingen kønsorganer eller bryster, der angiver sex, ingen andre ansigtstræk end den spidse næse. Jeg synes, han ligner det hemmelige, uægte kærlighedsbarn af Sam Eagle og Shmoo.

Dens design, materiale, store alder og ukendte oprindelse gør det til et spændende arkæologisk mysterium. Museumskuratorer kalder figuren for en 7.000 år gammel gåde.

Det kunne skildre en menneskelignende figur med et fuglelignende ansigt eller en fuglelignende enhed, der ikke har noget at gøre med mennesket, men med det neolitiske samfunds ideologi og symbolik, ” Katya Manteli, en arkæolog med museet, fortalte Reuters.

Eksperter kan heller ikke være sikre på dets oprindelse, da den tilhører en personlig samling. De antager kun, at det er fra de nordgræske regioner i Thessalien eller Makedonien.

I modsætning til de fleste neolitiske figurer lavet af blød sten er den skåret ud af hård sten, selvom metalværktøjer ikke var tilgængelige på det tidspunkt.

Og selvom den er for kort til en menneskelig figur i naturlig størrelse, er den større end de fleste neolitiske statuer, som sjældent findes over 35 cm høje.

Med hensyn til teknik og størrelse er det blandt de sjældne og unikke værker i den neolitiske periode i Grækenland, ” sagde Manteli.

Det er muligt, at manglen på kønskarakteristika og detaljerede funktioner er en praktisk begrænsning for at skulle skære hård granit med stenværktøjer. Det kan også være ufuldstændigt, selvom højglanspolen viser, at dette er et færdigt stykke.

Der er mere end 200.000 genstande opbevaret i permanent opbevaring på Det Nationale Arkæologiske Museum. Denne charmerende neolitiske fyr er en af ​​de skatte, der trækkes fra lageret til Det usynlige museum, en udstilling, der giver bænkspillerne en chance for at starte spillet for en gangs skyld. Det løber gennem den 26. marts i år.

Mærkelige dyrebegravelser fundet under Shrewsbury kirke

Mandag den 13. februar 2017

En udgravning omkring en middelalderkirke i Sutton Farm, Shrewsbury, har fundet jordiske rester af en tidligere angelsaksisk kirke og en række usædvanlige dyregravninger, der kan være førkristne. Church of the Holy Fathers, som den nu er kendt, blev købt fra Church of England af den græsk -ortodokse kirke i 1994. Kirken blev bygget i slutningen af ​​det 12., tidlige 13. århundrede og var blevet forladt i slutningen af ​​1800 -tallet og var bruges som opbevaringsskur. Den græsk-ortodokse kirke restaurerede den næsten nedlagte klasse II-fredede bygning, og en menighed har tilbedt der siden.

Marken på vestsiden af ​​kirken er beregnet til udvikling — det vil være en parkeringsplads til en ejendom med 300 boliger —, og et team fra Baskerville Archaeological Services blev kontraheret til at udgrave stedet, før byggeriet begyndte. I henhold til planlægningskontrakten finansierede udviklerne Taylor Wimpey en arkæologisk undersøgelse af parkeringspladsen fra sensommeren til november. Den græsk -ortodokse kirke trådte til for at finansiere en forlængelse af udgravningen, og udviklere gav arkæologerne mere tid til at udforske stedet.

De var i stand til at afdække fundamenter for den nuværende middelalderlige kirke, der strakte sig 20 fod fra nutidens mure, hvilket indikerer, at denne lille kirke engang var meget større. Ved siden af ​​middelalderens fundamenter og mellem 15 og 18 centimeter dybere under jorden fandt arkæologer stengrundlaget til en tidligere bygning, som de mener er en angelsaksisk kirke. Flere artefakter blev opdaget i en murbrokker: tre granatnåle, en udskåret sten af ​​ubestemt alder og to mønter, en af ​​dem en Charles I halvfarve præget mellem 1624 og 1635.

The very last day of the dig on the west side, the team unearthed a 15-section of a wooden post, likely a door post, in the layer believed to be Anglo-Saxon. This was a key discovery, because wood can be radiocarbon dated to confirm or deny whether the earlier structure does date to the Anglo-Saxon period.

On the south side of the church, archaeologists found more foundations of the medieval church. These indicate the church had a transept, the arms on either side of the nave that form the traditional cross shape. They also discovered the medieval graveyard. The remains of three people were unearthed, including an intact skeleton of a woman buried in shroud, but that’s to be expected in a churchyard. Less expected were the elaborate animal burials: the skeletons of a calf and a pig carefully posed together with yin-yang symmetry, a Stone Age flint found between the ribs of the calf, the skeletal remains of a pig laid to rest in a leather-covered wood coffin, the bones of a large female dog that died during whelping found next to the bones of six chickens, a pregnant goat and what appear to be the bones of one more dog and a large bird. Those last two have yet to be fully excavated.

“It was a huge surprise to find these burials in a church graveyard. To find animals buried in consecrated ground is incredibly unusual because it would have been a big no no,” [Janey Green, from Baskerville Archaeological Services,] said. “The bones don’t show any signs of butchery and the animals appear to have been deliberately and carefully laid in the ground.”

“The site is a few hundred metres from known prehistoric human burial mounds so they may be connected. Initially I thought I may have come across a whimsical Victorian burial of a beloved pet. But the Victorians usually left objects in the graves such as a collar, a letter or a posie of flowers and we haven’t found a shred of evidence of anything like that here. Neither is there evidence that the animals were fallen farm stock that were disposed of in modern times.”

/>Green thinks these are likely pre-Christian burials. The bones will have to be carbon dated before we can know, and it doesn’t look like they have the budget for it at this point. They’re working on it.

The parking lot is still going forward. Taylor Wimpey have agreed to seal the medieval foundations under a geotextile membrane before pouring the asphalt. This will protect them from damage and make them more easily accessible should someone in the future pick the archaeological remains over the parking lot. Meanwhile, the excavations on the south side of the church will continue. The remains, both human and animal, will be reburied at the church in a special funerary service.

The Legacy of Ancient Palmyra online

Sunday, February 12th, 2017

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Palmyra, the crossroads of civilizations, prosperous center of trade between the Silk Road and Europe from the 3rd century B.C. under the Hellenistic Seleucid kingdom through the 3rd century A.D. under the Roman Empire, is no stranger to wartime destruction. Emperor Aurelian razed the city in 273 when it rebelled against his rule. He pillaged its temples and used their treasures to decorate his temple to the sun god Sol in Rome. Enough survived to make Palmyra’s monumental ruins some of the most extensive and dramatic in the Greco-Roman world, and when European visitors started writing about the spectacular remains starting in 1696 with Abednego Seller’s The Antiquities of Palmyra, Palmyrene structures like the Temple of Bel, the Temple of Baalshamin, the tower tombs and the Great Colonnade became icons of classical architecture and inspired Western artists, poets and architects.

One of those artists was Louis-François Cassas (1756-1827) who made highly detailed drawings of the ruins of Palmyra in 1785. Cassas spent a month in Palmyra, recording all of the ancient ruins he saw. As an architect, Cassas had a keen eye for sculptural features which gave his renderings a precision matched by none of his predecessors in the voyage pittoresque tradition of illustrated travel accounts. His drawings of Palmyra, detailed views of ornamental features, architectural elevations and reconstructions illustrated his own travel account, Voyage Pittoresque de la Syrie, de la Phenicie, de la Palestine, et de la Basse Egypte, published beginning in 1799.

Following in Cassas footprints but using a new medium was Louis Vignes (1831-1896), a French career naval officer and a photographer. In 1863, Vignes was assigned to accompany Honoré Théodore d’Albert, duc de Luynes, on a scientific expedition to Palestine, Syria and Lebanon. Luynes was an avid amateur archaeologist and antiquarian, an expert in Damascus steel and a patron of the arts with a particular taste for commissioning works in the classical style. The year before the expedition, the duke had donated his vast collection of antiquities — coins, Greek vases, medallions, intaglio gemstones — to France’s Cabinet des Médailles, and as an immensely wealthy aristocrat with a passel of big titles, when Luynes demanded that the French government provide him with a naval officer for his voyage, he got what he wanted.

/>Vignes was a particularly good choice for a mission that would encounter numerous archaeological remains, because he had been trained by pioneering photographer Charles Nègre and could be of as much help to the duke on dry land as he was on the seas. Luynes’ primary objective was to do one of the first scientific explorations of the Dead Sea. From the Dead Sea, the expedition traveled the Jordan River Valley, the mountains of Moab and the full length of the Wadi Arabah to the Gulf of Aqaba. Over the 10 months of the expedition, they also visited Palmyra and Beirut where Vignes took pictures of the ancient ruins.

/>The scientific report of the expedition, Voyage d’exploration à la mer Morte, à Petra, et sur la rive gauche du Jourdain, wasn’t published until 1875, eight years after Luynes’ death. Vignes photos of the Dead Sea were included in the publication, but by then Vignes had long since cut to the chase. He hooked up with his old mentor Charles Nègre to develop and print the negatives Vignes had taken in Beirut and Palmyra. The albumen prints were given to the duc de Luynes before his death in 1867. The Vignes photographs are the earliest known pictures of the Greco-Roman remains in Palmyra.

/>They have taken on even more significance in the light of recent events. Palmyra’s ruins have been devastated in the Syrian Civil War, bombed and shelled by everyone, deliberately destroyed by IS ostensibly out of iconoclastic fervor, although their real motivation, I think, is to taunt the world into multiple impotent rage strokes cultural heritage destruction as a brutal mass troll. The temples of Bel and Baalshamin were blown up, as were three of the best preserved tower tombs, the Arch of Triumph on the east end of the Great Colonnade and, if recent reports bear out, the tetrapylon and part of the Roman theater.

/>In 2015, with the monstrous savaging of Palmyra’s ancient monuments well underway, the Getty Research Institute acquired an album of 47 of Vignes’ original photos taken in Palmyra and Beirut. That album was digitized — the pictures can be browsed here — as were 58 additional Vignes prints from the duc de Luynes’ personal collection.

/>Now the Getty Research Institute has enlisted its Vignes photographs, Cassas drawings and other important sources in an online exhibition dedicated to history of Palmyra.

The online exhibition draws heavily from the Getty Research Institute’s collections as well as art in museum and library collections all over the world. The exhibition explores the site’s early history, the far-reaching influence of Palmyra in Western art and culture, and the loss, now tremendous and irrevocable, of the ruins that for centuries stood as a monument to a great city and her people.

“The devastation unleashed in Syria today forces a renewed interpretation of the early prints and photographs of this extraordinary world heritage site.” said Getty Research Institute curator Frances Terpak. “They gain more significance as examples of cultural documents that
can encourage a deeper appreciation of humanity’s past achievements. Understanding Palmyra through these invaluable accounts preserves its memory and connects us with its grandeur and enduring legacy.”

The Legacy of Ancient Palmyra is the Getty Research Institute’s first online exhibition and it’s beautifully curated. I hope it’s the first of many to come.

Large Roman mosaic floor found in Leicester

Saturday, February 4th, 2017

/>Archaeologists from the University of Leicester Archaeological Services (ULAS) have discovered a large Roman mosaic pavement at a construction site in Leicester. The property on the corner of Highcross Street and Vaughan Way has been excavated since November and already archaeologists have unearthed the remains of a Roman street, two other buildings and an elegant villa with mosaic floors. Highcross Street today runs along the path of the Roman road that went from the Roman forum to the north gate of the city. The excavation site covers almost two-thirds of a Roman insula, or city block, which gives archaeologists an incredibly rare view into a cross-section of Roman Leicester.

/>The Roman house with the mosaic was unearthed on the east side of the site next to the John Lewis parking lot. At least three of its rooms had mosaic floors. One of them has a particularly large extant section about two meters (6.6 feet) by three meters (9.8 feet) in size. Archaeologists estimate this surviving section is about a quarter of the size of the original mosaic. It is the largest Roman mosaic pavement found in Leicester in last 30 years.

/>Mathew Morris, site director for ULAS, said: “The mosaic is fantastic, it’s been a long time since we’ve found a large, well-preserved mosaic in Leicester. Stylistically, we believe it dates to the early fourth century AD. It would have originally been in a square room in the house. It has a thick border of red tiles surrounding a central square of grey tiles. Picked out in red in the grey square are several decorations, including a geometric border, foliage and a central hexafoil cross. The intricate geometric border follows a pattern known as ‘swastika-meander’. The swastika is an ancient symbol found in most world cultures, and it is a common geometrical motif in Roman mosaics, created by laying out the pattern on a repeating grid of 4 by 4 squares. As part of the project, our plan is to lift and conserve it for future display.”

Another large Roman dwelling was found on the western side of the site. It has two sets of rooms along a corridor with a central courtyard. There are no mosaic floors, but there is a hypocaust system in one of the rooms which means heated flooring or a private bathing facility. This was likely a townhouse, and indeed a very similar townhouse was discovered on nearby Vine Street underneath the John Lewis lot in 2006.

The third Roman building is smaller. It was found in the center of the site and has a peculiar feature: a large sunken room, possibly a cellar. There may be an apse on one side of the sunken room. Archaeologists don’t know what this building was used for or what the purpose of the sunken room may have been. They are a rare feature in Roman architecture.

Mathew Morris added: “At the moment there is a lot of speculation about what this building might be. It could be a large hypocaust but we are still investigating. It seems to be tucked away in yards and gardens in the middle of the insula, giving it privacy away from the surrounding streets and the possible apse is only really big enough to house something like a statue, which makes us wonder if it is something special like a shrine.”

Developers plan to build apartments on the property, but they are working with ULAS to determine how to construct the new building without destroying ny significant archaeological materials underneath the surface. They’ve removed rubble and soil accumulated from the Victorian era to now to reveal where the Roman and medieval remains are. Archaeologists and architects will collaborate on the ideal placement of the foundations of the new building to ensure remains are either left unmolested in situ or excavated and raised before construction. Most of the archaeology will remain in place under the new building.

/>The excavation is scheduled to continue through at least February. No medieval structures have been unearthed thus far, but in the 12th century Leicester’s first hospital, St Johns’ Hospital, was founded on the site. The medieval town goal was also there, so archaeologists are hoping to find at least some evidence of these important buildings.

Well-preserved Roman shipwreck found off Mallorca

Wednesday, February 1st, 2017

A Roman shipwreck from the 3rd or 4th century A.D. has been discovered next to the island of Cabrera just south of Mallorca, Spain. Dubbed Cabrera XIV, the wreck is in untouched condition, preserved where it fell for almost 2000 years. Archaeologists Sebastià Munar and Javier Rodríguez Pandozi of the Balearic Institute of Studies in Marine Archeology (IBEAM) describe the find as “the best preserved wreck of the Balearic Islands and, most likely, one of the best preserved in the western Mediterranean.”

“As far as we know, this is the first time that a completely unaltered wreck has been found in Spanish waters,” says Javier Rodríguez, one of the marine archeologists who participated in the exploration and documentation of the remains of the ship, describing it as an “architectural jewel.”

The difficult-to-reach location and the fact the waters are part of a National Park have been key factors in the preservation of the vessel.

The ship was found in waters 70 meters (230 feet) deep in April 2016 after fishermen reporting pulling up some amphora fragments in their nets at that location. IBEAM scouted the site with a robot. The robot’s images revealed a vast mound of amphorae covering 50 feet of the seabed. In October, human divers dove the site, exploring and photographing in greater detail and at the level of the wreck itself. They took more than 2,000 pictures of the site from all angles which allowed experts to determine its size and orientation.

The ship was 20 meters (65 feet) long and carried a cargo of between 1,000 and 2,000 amphorae. Most of them were made in North Africa and are about one meter (3.3 feet) high. The rest were smaller and made in the south of the Iberian peninsula. Both types of jars carried garum, the sauce made from fermented fish intestines that the Romans put on everything.

Archaeologists believe the ship was transporting garum along a trade route between North Africa and Spain with stops in Gaul and Rome. When the ship sank in antiquity, it capsized on the sea floor. The amphora field covered the ship’s hull, preserving it as an oval mound about 15 meters (50 feet) long and 10 meters (33 feet) wide. With the cargo still in the position it landed in after the wreck, archaeologists are optimistic that there may be surviving timbers from the boat preserved underneath the amphorae.

The discovery was kept under wraps until last Friday to keep looters and sightseers from interfering with site. Now that the news is out, the authorities will police and secure the wreck to ensure it is not looted or inadvertently damaged.

Rare Han treasures at San Francisco’s Asian Art Museum

Tuesday, January 31st, 2017

A new exhibition opening next month at the Asian Art Museum in San Francisco Tomb Treasures: New Discoveries from China’s Han Dynasty will display 160 artifacts discovered in recent archaeological digs of Han dynasty tombs. Very few of these objects have never left China, and this is the show’s only US stop. The exhibition opens on February 17th and runs until May 28th, so don’t dally in making your way there.

The rule of the Han dynasty (206 BC–220 AD) is considered the first Chinese golden age, a period of relative peace and great economic prosperity in which the arts, sciences and trades flourished. Most of what we know of the Han emperors and their courts comes from ancient chroniclers, but they tend to focus on major events — wars, diplomacy, political intrigue — paying little attention to the />daily lives even of the rich and royal. Because Han nobles built large tomb complexes with multiple rooms filled with every necessity and luxury to ensure their high standard of living would carry over into the afterlife, objects discovered in tombs lend unique insight into the day-to-day of Han dynasty monarchs, their families, functionaries and courtiers.

/>Most of the artifacts in the exhibition were unearthed from the mausoleum of Liu Fei in China’s eastern Jiangsu province. Liu Fei was the son of Emperor Jing of Han (r. 157–141 B.C.). He ruled the valuable fiefdom Jiangdu from 153 B.C. until his death in 127 B.C. He was interred a vast tomb complex of almost 2.7 MILLION square feet that included the tombs of his wives, concubines and />attendants, plus weapons and chariot pits. The tomb was discovered on Dayun Mountain in 2009. Even though it had been looted repeatedly since antiquity, the floors of the outer chambers collapsed early enough in the tomb’s existence to preserve artifacts stored in the chambers below. Archaeologists found more than 10,000 artifacts crammed into storage rooms.

The exhibition is divided into three galleries. The first, Everlasting happiness without end, displays objects that reveal the kinds of entertainment enjoyed in Han dynasty palaces: music, dancing, food, wine. Artifacts include musical instruments, most notably a set of bronze bells and stone chimes that would have been used only on formal court occasions, smoke-eating lamps to keep the party going well into the night and ceramic />dancers captured in dynamic movement. Containers used to prepare and eat food held offerings that would nourish the Han ruler in the afterlife had ritual significance in tombs, and elegant dinnerware like jade cups, bronze bowls and tables inlaid with gold and gemstones ensured their heavenly food would be eaten in the high style to which they had become accustomed.

The second, Eternal life without limit, is set in a tomb-like space and features artifacts used to prepare the deceased for the afterlife and to prevent the decay of the flesh. There are medical implements and divination tools, but jade is the star player here. It was used in Chinese burials long before the Han dynasty (or any dynasty at all, for that matter) because it was considered to have the power to prevent the decay of the flesh. The Han took jade funerary artifacts to new heights. They believed that people had two souls, one that went straight to heaven after death, the other that stayed in the body. To keep the latter safe inside an intact body, the dead were covered in jade. Jade plugs were placed in all orifices and jade masks on the face. If the deceased was of high enough rank — emperor, king, important nobles — the body would be put in a suit made from hundreds of jade scales. An exquisite jade suit from the tomb of Queen Lian, Liu Fei’s second and likely favorite wife, is a highlight of this gallery.

/>The theme of the third gallery is Enduring remembrance without fail. It explores the private, personal spaces of Han palaces, exhibiting objects from people’s bedrooms and bathrooms. Artifacts in this gallery include personal hygiene and grooming tools, a silver bath basin, incense burners, lacquer cosmetics boxes and sex toys. There are gifts from kings to their wives and lovers — silver belt hooks, a bronze mirror, a jade pendant — identifiable as such from inscriptions. There’s even an earthenware model of a toilet from the 2nd century B.C. found in 1995 in the tomb of the King of Chu dug into Jiangsu’s Tuolan Mountain.

I’d like to conclude with a special note of thanks to Zac Rose of the Asian Art Museum for the beautiful photographs and wealth of information he was kind enough to share with me. I’ve written about ancient Chinese tomb discoveries before, and I would have written about more of them had there been any remotely usable pictures. There’s no relief once artifacts are in museums either, since most Chinese museums don’t have detailed pictures of their collection online. Getting such spectacular high resolution shots of recently excavated artifacts from Han tombs is an incredibly rare treat and I’m so grateful.

And now, even more pictures!

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38,000-year-old aurochs engraving found in France

Saturday, January 28th, 2017

An international team of anthropologists has unearthed a 38,000-year-old engraving of an aurochs at the Abri Blanchard site in Dordogne, southwestern France.

First excavated in 1910, the Abri Blanchard rock shelter quickly proved itself to be an enormously rich source of archaeological material from the Aurignacian culture of the Upper Palaeolithic. It’s one of the top three Aurignacian sites in terms of numbers of bone pieces found, and archaeologists also found large quantities of flint tools, weapons and production waste indicating flint tools were being made inside the shelter. It wasn’t all business at Abri Blanchard, however. Decorative ornaments including soapstone beads, pierced shell and animal teeth were unearthed in the prehistoric deposits as were numerous artworks engraved and painted stone blocks and slabs.

As was accepted practice at the time, the finds from the 1910-1912 excavation of Abri Blanchard were sold in batches to collectors and museums and dispersed across Europe and the United States. The widespread selling artifacts was actually encouraged by the archaeological community because it was one of very few reliable sources of funding for future excavations, and it was inconceivable that all of materials recovered from such a rich dig could find a single home in a local or nationally prominent museum. The dig was also poorly documented, with no stratigraphic and spatial mapping, and while remains and objects were found in two archaeological layers, excavation director Louis Didon mingled the discoveries without concern for which layer they came from, grouping them by type or other shared criteria that appealed to buyers.

In 2011, more than a century after the first excavations began, a new research team returned to Abri Blanchard to reexcavate the site armed with modern equipment and modern archaeological standards. In 2012, they unearthed a limestone slab engraved with the image of an aurochs (wild cow once native to Europe and one of my top three favorite extinct animals) decorated with dozens of dots aligned in neat rows.

The aurochs was a popular motif in Aurignacian art. The Abri Blanchard engraving has notable similarities in technique and design to the aurochs painted on the walls of the spectacular Chauvet Cave, and the aligned dots have been found in Chauvet as well as other Aurignacian sites in Germany and France.

“The discovery sheds new light on regional patterning of art and ornamentation across Europe at a time when the first modern humans to enter Europe dispersed westward and northward across the continent,” explains NYU anthropologist Randall White, who led the excavation in France’s Vézère Valley.

The findings, which appear in the journal Quaternary International, center on the early modern humans’ Aurignacian culture, which existed from approximately 43,000 to 33,000 years ago. […]

White contends that Aurignacian art offers a window into the lives and minds of its makers—and into the societies they created.

“Following their arrival from Africa, groups of modern humans settled into western and Central Europe, showing a broad commonality in graphic expression against which more regionalized characteristics stand out,” he explains. “This pattern fits well with social geography models that see art and personal ornamentation as markers of social identity at regional, group, and individual levels.”

Fragments found of Amenhotep II box

Recently identified fragments from an elaborately decorated wooden box inscribed with the cartouche of 18th Dynasty Pharaoh Amenhotep II have revealed new information about the original design of the box. The fragments were held by London antiques dealers Charles Ede. Egyptologist Tom Hardwick researched them and discovered their connection to the box in the National Museums Scotland. He alerted the gallery and the gallery alerted the museum. Thanks to financial support from the Art Fund and the National Museums Scotland Charitable Trust, the museum acquired the fragments for £25,000. The reunited box and fragments will go on display at the National Museums Scotland where they will be part of the exhibition The Tomb: Ancient Egyptian Burial which runs from March 31st through September 3rd, 2017.

Made from Lebanese cedar wood, the cylindrical box was made around 1427-1400 B.C. with the finest of raw materials and craftsmanship. It is inlaid with ebony strips and ivory plaques with copper alloy and faience accents. Some of the gilding on the central figure of the god Bes and on three bands encircling the cylinder has survived. Ivory cartouches on the top half of the box contain the throne name of Amenhotep II. Underneath the cartouches are the Egyptian hieroglyph for “gold,” a symbol of the divine and eternal life. Notched ribs from palm tree branches, symbolizing the passage of a year and therefore the portent of a long reign, stand on either side of the cartouches. The cartouches and royal symbols festooned around Bes, fierce protector of hearth and home, suggests the box invoked the protection of a very personal, homebody god to ensure a long reign and life for Amenhotep.

The box has been in the collection of the National Museums Scotland for 160 years, but its origins are nebulous. The first time the box appears in the museum records is in the 1890s when it was first reassembled from fragments by archaeologist and museum director Joseph Anderson. According to an article written in 1895 by renown Egyptologist Sir Flinders Petrie, Anderson found the fragments in a box of odds and ends from the Rhind Collection.

/>Alexander Henry Rhind was a Scottish archaeologists who excavated Egypt in the mid-19th century and who pioneered detailed archaeological documentation. He brought back hundreds of artifacts now in the collection of the National Museums Scotland, including the full contents of a tomb he’d excavated in Thebes which was built in 1290 B.C. for the Chief of Police, looted repeatedly and reused for more than a 1000 years. When Rhind discovered the tomb, its last occupation from the Roman Egyptian era was undisturbed. Until he took it all to Scotland, of course. This is the tomb that is the focus of the National Museums Scotland’s upcoming exhibition.

Unfortunately, Rhind’s archaeological recording skills did not extend to documenting the discovery of the box fragments, and since he died in 1863 when he was just 29 years old he was no longer around to answer any questions by the time Joseph Anderson stumbled on the pieces. Museum curator and expert in Egyptian art Cyril Aldred studied the box in the 1940s. He made a detailed line drawing and watercolor of it in 1946 and proposed that Rhind had discovered the box in a tomb next to the recycled Roman Egyptian tomb. This tomb held the mummies of Amenhotep II’s granddaughters, among other princesses. They would have had good reason to have an extra fancy box dedicated to the grandpa, and since this was not the mummies’ original resting place but rather a second, less visible location used by priests to spare the royal remains from looting, the box’s fragmentary condition could be explained by the move.

The box was restored again in 1950s, and while it was less terrible than the 19th century attempt (the back is missing, but they still curved into a cylinder even though it was too skinny and the ends didn’t meet or match), conservators had to fill in blanks without references to what it might have looked like when whole. The newly surfaced fragments answer some of those questions and confirm that the last restoration was not accurate.

The decoration on one of the fragments features a motif representing the façade of the royal palace, tying in with the rich royal symbolism on the box, and confirming the object’s royal association. Furthermore, where the decoration of the box differs from that of the fragments, it reveals that the part of the box was incorrectly restored in mid-20th century.

The box is a much more elaborate version of the types of wooden containers often found in ancient Egyptian tombs, other examples of which are in National Museums Scotland’s collections. It was probably used in the royal palace to hold cosmetics or expensive perfumes and likely belonged to a member of the king’s family, most probably one of his granddaughters.

Even with its missing bits and questionable past restorations, the box is widely considered a masterpiece of ancient Egyptian decorative woodwork. Petrie described it as “a very interesting example of the fine work of that most wealthy and luxurious period, the 18th Dynasty.” After their stint on display in the new exhibition, the box and fragments will be kept in storage while the museums constructs a new Ancient Egypt gallery to house it. The new gallery is scheduled to be completed in 2018-2019.

3,500-year-old jewelry workshop illuminates dark age

Wednesday, January 25th, 2017

Archaeologists have discovered a 3,500-year-old jewelry workshop on the island of Failaka off the coast of Kuwait. Failaka was one of the major hubs of the Bronze Age Dilmun civilization, which at its peak is believed to have covered parts of modern-day Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar and coastal Saudi Arabia. From around 2000 B.C., Dilmun held the monopoly on trade in the Persian Gulf. Failaka’s position at the entrance to Kuwait Bay gave it outsized strategic significance.

Dilmun’s ascendance wasn’t uninterrupted. Somewhere around the year 1700 B.C., the well-established trade network collapsed. The temples and cities were abandoned and the tombs of the kings looted. The next century is known as a dark age for Dilmun and Failaka because whatever the cause and effects of the collapse, there is little in the archaeological record that might shed light on the period.

The jewelry workshop is therefore something of a grail-shaped beacon. It was discovered in a building dated to the period between 1700 and 1600 B.C. and it contains very important garbage: small fragments of semi-precious stones including carnelian and jasper discarded as waste. Carnelian and jasper and not native to Failaka. These were imports, probably from Indian and Pakistan, which means trade across vast distances was still active during the so-called dark ages.

Kristoffer Damgaard, an assistant professor in the department of Cross-Cultural and Regional Studies at the University of Copenhagen, believes that Højlund and his colleagues have made an important discovery.

“I have no doubt that this is an important and historically crucial discovery,” said Damgaard. “These are the raw materials for luxury items for the wealthy that reveals the local elite had the option of long-distance trading in commodities such as precious stones.”

Damgaard said that the find is an “example of how far back globalisation extends”. Højlund believes that the stones show that Kuwait resumed trade during the dark period.

“Kuwait must have re-established the trade routes that collapsed around the year 1700 BC,” he said. “It bears witness to a renaissance in Bahrain and Failaka in around 1600 BC, when it resumed relations eastward to Pakistan and India.”

It’s also relevant to Failaka’s particular archaeological record because Dilmun was known for its circular stamped seals (as opposed to ones that were rolled like the cylinders of Mesopotamia). Dilmunian seals have been unearthed in India, Mesopotamia and in Failaka. A great number of them were found in a square stone building in the Al Hakim Palace and Tower Temple complex. They were of different shapes and sizes — circular, rectangular, square, cylinder scarab-shaped — and bore different inscriptions. The sheer numbers and variety of seals found on Failaka underscore that it was a pivot point of cultural exchange between the civilizations of the Gulf.


Archaeologists Find Ancient Kitchen Of The Royal City Of Kabah Mayan

Recent studies have archaeological site of Kabah Yucatan led to the discovery of the real cuisine of this ancient Mayan city, cooking utensils, and found there may be as old as 1000 years.


Researchers at the National Institute of Anthropology and History (INAH, Mexico) has been excavating in the area for a year, looking for evidence to determine the activities that took place in what was the royal residence of Kabah. The area was an area where the elite of the ancient Mayan city lived.

The area occupied by the old kitchen is 40 feet long and 14 feet wide. At this point, the researchers found the remains of the brick architecture, traces of fireplaces, large quantities of pottery and stone, whose age is estimated at over a thousand years.

Experts say that (INAH in Spanish), the age of archaeological material found covering the years 750-950 AD, the time when pre-Hispanic city reached its highest development.

The location of the objects found shows that in the royal kitchen, there was room for different functions in two rooms, they found the remains of clay vessels up to 70 cm in diameter in the surrounding areas, they found kitchen tools and other sectors remaining stone fireplaces.

The tour is offered to show the archaeologists find, the retail researchers have found more than 30 000 pieces of pottery and stone objects 70 and butcher animals and vegetable consumption in the process. They are in metates (stones Mealing), metate hands, hammers, knives, blades and scrapers, and traces of walls and other degraded materials.

Toscano explained that the archaeological investigation of the royal kitchen of Kabah was supported by biochemical studies by experts in the Department of Anthropology at the Universidad Autonoma de Yucatan. They were able to confirm the existence of two regions of households for cooking with evidence of organic matter, which is probably the remains of animals, but have not been able to identify the species because they are a very small part of bone.

Toscano said that a major problem for researchers to know because they have found more bones of animals. Because in this place, large quantities of food had been cooked, bone increases the waste can be expected.

It is proposed as an explanation the possibility that kitchen waste was not released on or near the site:

"It was an area where food waste was not maintained. Chances are that there is a landfill nearby. "

This assumption has led the team of archaeologists to extend the archaeology excavations in search of landfills.

The ancient Mayan city of Kabah is located 22 km from the archaeological Uxmal, Puuc-mountain. The plot is located 140 km south of Merida, Yucatan state capital. Uxmal and Kabah are in addition to tourist attractions. The ruins are scattered over a large area on both sides of Highway 261 Several structures are rarely used because they are in remote locations, or even out of the jungle.

For more interesting topics related to archaeology , visit archaeology excavations .


New fossil evidence claims first discovery of taro in Maori gardens

This is a map of the South Pacific Ocean showing the southern Polynesian islands (brown dashed line) examined in this study (blue boxes). Insets A-C show the study islands, including sediment core locations and high elevation points. Credit: Matthew Prebble

The first discovery of Polynesian taro grown in Māori gardens in the 1400s can be claimed by an archaeological research project on Ahuahu-Great Mercury Island.

Jointly carried out by the University of Auckland and Auckland War Memorial Museum, the project's new evidence displays the sophistication with which early Māori first utilised the New Zealand environment, and also that they developed wetland gardens for taro.

Previous archaeological evidence favoured kumara as the only viable crop in New Zealand's cooler climates but this new research, which explored the history of Māori settlement on the island, indicates taro was also an important crop in the early Māori diet, alongside leafy greens such as pūhā and watercress.

During extensive field work on the private island off the eastern coast of Coromandel, palynologist Matthew Prebble of the Australian National University, alongside a team of archaeologists from the University of Auckland and Auckland War Memorial Museum, analysed buried sediments from swamps which contained the pollen of taro and other leafy greens.

The deposits have been radiocarbon-dated to the 14th century, around 600 to 700 years ago. Along with the taro and kumara, some of the green leafy plants were probably introduced by Tūpuna Māori, and the gardens on Ahuahu are among some of the earliest known of in New Zealand.

Team member, the University of Auckland's Professor Simon Holdaway, says archaeologists have long considered the cooler climate of New Zealand, compared to the warmer climate of Polynesian islands, hindered early attempts Māori's early attempts to grow traditional Polynesian crops such as taro.

"This evidence for early taro production refutes the long-held view that only kumara could be grown in New Zealand," he says.

"It indicates Tūpuna Māori may have initially focused on taro and created specialised wetland gardens for the purpose kumara then became the main crop after AD 1500."

Photomicrographs of the invertebrate fossil taxa. B, A1 (head, EA204, 210 cm to 220 cm, early garden), B, A2 (head, RAIDA4, 90 cm to 95 cm, late garden), B, A3 (elytron, EA204, 210 cm to 220 cm, early garden), B, A4 (thorax, EA204, 210 cm to 220 cm, early garden), and B, A5 (prothorax, EA204, 210 cm to 220 cm, early garden) are C. desjardinsi B, B (forceps, TUKOU2, 58 cm to 60 cm, late garden) is E. annulipes B, C1 and C2 (elytra, EA204, 170 cm to 180 cm, late garden) are Ataenius cf. picinus B, D1 and D2 (heads, EA204, 170 cm to 180 cm, late garden) are Aleocharinae spp. B, E1 (head, EA204, 190 cm to 200 cm, early garden) and B, E2 (pronotum, EA204, 190 cm to 200 cm, early garden) are Carpelimus sp. B, F1 (elytron, EA204, 80 cm to 90 cm, PEC) is Dactylosternum cf. marginale B, F2 (elytron, RAIDA4, 100 cm to 105 cm, late garden) is D. abdominale B, G1 (elytron, EA204, 190 cm to 200 cm, early garden) is Saprosites sp. B, G2 (elytron, RAIDA4, 50 cm to 55 cm, PEC) is S, pygmaeus B, H (head, TUKOU2, 74 cm to 76 cm, late garden) is Tetramorium pacificum (Formicidae) B, I (head, EA204, 90 cm to 100 cm PEC) is Hypoponera cf. punctatissima (Formicidae) and B, J (head, RAIDA4, 95 cm to 100 cm, late garden) is Nylanderia sp. (Formicidae). (Scale bar, 0.5 mm.) Credit: Nicholas Porch and Matthew Prebble

Pre-European Māori gardens were also thought to have been relatively weed free, but the fossil pollen remains from Ahuahu suggest indigenous edible leafy herbs such as watercress and pūhā were common. The early Māori diet was balanced by a range of vegetables.

Based on this information, it's now thought that Ahuahu was used by Tūpuna Māori to grow gardens because of the limited amount of kauri and rimu forests which were difficult to clear with fire, the limited exposure to frosts and the similarity of the island to the Polynesian homeland islands.

Matthew Prebble has also analysed swamp cores from islands in southern French Polynesia, in Raivavae and Rapa, which showed many of the same weeds also lived in early taro gardens in the subtropics and tropics.

The new evidence suggests that Polynesians gardeners were inventive and adapted the environment to continue growing their staple food, taro.

A paper on this ground-breaking research, authored by Matthew Prebble, was published today in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.


Se videoen: Štěrkový záhon (Kan 2022).